Tag Archives: Raytheon

Milestone C

Raytheon Company and the U.S. Air Force successfully completed the Small Diameter Bomb II (SDB II) Milestone C decision briefing, paving the way for the program to enter Low Rate Initial (LRI) production. SDB II is an all-weather solution that continues to provide precision even in limited visibility scenarios.

With its tri-mode seeker, the Small Diameter Bomb II destroys moving and stationary targets in adverse weather
With its tri-mode seeker, the Small Diameter Bomb II destroys moving and stationary targets in adverse weather

Unlike standard bombs, SDB II employs Raytheon’s revolutionary tri-mode seeker that operates in three different modes:

  • millimeter-wave radar;
  • uncooled imaging infrared;
  • semi-active laser.

SDB II can strike targets from a range of more than 40 nautical miles/46 miles/74 km, with a dynamic warhead that can destroy both soft and hard targets. The bomb can also change targets in-flight through the use of a secure datalink.

Locked and loaded, the F-15E fighter aircraft can carry seven groups of four Small Diameter Bomb IIs, for a total of 28 weapons
Locked and loaded, the F-15E fighter aircraft can carry seven groups of four Small Diameter Bomb IIs, for a total of 28 weapons

«The Milestone C decision enables us to begin putting this game-changing capability into the warfighters’ hands», said Colonel Kevin Hickman, USAF SDB II program manager. «The ability to strike moving targets with extreme precision in adverse weather reduces an aircrew’s time in harm’s way and limits collateral damage in the battlespace».

The Milestone C achievement follows a successful functional configuration audit, production readiness review and system verification review. Milestone C will lead to a positive acquisition decision memorandum validating the preparedness of the company and the weapon system to continue to production.

«Achieving Milestone C marks the hard work of the U.S. government and Raytheon teams to verify that we meet or exceed the requirements necessary for a Lot 1 production decision», said Jim Sweetman, SDB II program director for Raytheon Missile Systems. «SDB II’s unique capabilities help ensure that our warfighters maintain their unfair advantage in the fight».

Raytheon, the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force have begun Small Diameter Bomb II integration activities on the F-35, F/A-18E/F and F-16 aircrafts
Raytheon, the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force have begun Small Diameter Bomb II integration activities on the F-35, F/A-18E/F and F-16 aircrafts

 

Small Diameter Bomb II

SDB II employs Raytheon’s unprecedented tri-mode seeker. The new seeker operates in multi-attack modes: millimeter-wave radar, uncooled imaging infrared and semi-active laser. These sensors enable the weapon to seek and destroy targets, both moving and stationary, even in adverse weather conditions from standoff ranges.

SDB II can strike targets from a range of more than 40 nautical miles/46 miles/74 km, with a dynamic warhead that can destroy both soft and armored targets, while keeping collateral damage to a minimum through a small explosive footprint. The highly accurate SDB II offers warfighters the flexibility to change targets after release through a secure datalink that passes in-flight updates to the weapon.

The Department of Defense has validated SDB II as a weapon that meets a critical warfighter need and has invested more than $700 million in the SDB II program.

SDB II can fly over 46 miles/74 km to meet its target, allowing the warfighter to maintain a secure distance from the threat
SDB II can fly over 46 miles/74 km to meet its target, allowing the warfighter to maintain a secure distance from the threat

 

This animation depicts a Raytheon Small Diameter Bomb II using laser guidance to track and destroy a target.

 

This animation depicts an F-15E aircraft employing a Raytheon Small Diameter Bomb II.

 

This animation depicts an F-15 employing a Raytheon Small Diameter Bomb II. Using its advanced Tri-mode seeker, the SDB II targets and destroys a moving vehicle.

 

Small Diameter Bomb II can fly more than 45 miles to strike mobile targets, reducing aircrews’ time in harm’s way. The weapon’s small size allows fewer aircraft to take out the same number of targets as previous, larger weapons that required multiple jets.

 

Tomahawk Block IV

The Navy’s Tactical Tomahawk missile underwent a successful production acceptance test March 19 using Functional Ground Test (FGT) capability at Naval Surface Warfare Center Indian Head Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division’s (NSWC IHEODTD) Large Rocket Motor Test Facility in Indian Head, Maryland.

Tomahawk Block IV cruise missile can circle for hours, shift course instantly on command and beam a picture of its target to controllers halfway around the world before striking with pinpoint accuracy
Tomahawk Block IV cruise missile can circle for hours, shift course instantly on command and beam a picture of its target to controllers halfway around the world before striking with pinpoint accuracy

The Tomahawk land attack missile – managed by Naval Air Systems Command’s (NAVAIR) Program Executive Office for Unmanned Aviation and Strike Weapons (PEOU&W) – is an all-weather, long-range, sub-sonic cruise missile used for land attack warfare, and is launched from U.S. Navy surface ships and submarines.

«This latest FGT – which is the 84th we’ve conducted in the past 25 years – was in support of the RGM-109E Block IV, Vertical Launch System (VLS) full-rate production lot acceptance», said NSWC IHEODTD’s Michael Spriggs, senior engineer and FGT test conductor. «For the test, we used a single, representative missile from the full-rate production line to demonstrate the capability of this lot to perform mission requirements. The data we collected from the test will be used to verify the manufacturing processes and quality of missiles produced».

During the test, the missile is exercised at the system level as it would be in an operational flight through the detonation command, except that the missile is restrained in a specially designed test stand and is equipped with an inert warhead.

«After ‘launch,’ real-time, six-degree-of-freedom accredited mission simulation software provides inputs to the missile’s guidance system to mimic flight, targeting and detonation. The missile ‘flew’ for about an hour and 45 minutes before it successfully acquired the target», said NSWC IHEODTD FGT software lead Mike Gardner.

Because the missile remains intact, special instrumentation can be applied and thorough post-flight inspections can be conducted.

«Preliminary assessment indicates this missile performed as expected and all test objectives were achieved», said Spriggs.

According to Spriggs, the FGT program at NSWC IHEODTD began in 1990 as a basic test capability to support NAVAIR’s Tomahawk Weapons System Program Office (PMA-280), and has evolved along with the missile to support all variants. In addition to acceptance testing, FGTs are conducted to verify new missiles; assess service life of aged missiles; monitor stockpiled missiles; or observe newly engineered components.

«We anticipate conducting the next FGT later this fiscal year to sample a capsule launching system variant», said NSWC IHEODTD’s Phillip Vaughn, FGT program manager.

NSWC IHEODTD is a field activity of the Naval Sea Systems Command and is part of the Department of the Navy’s science and engineering enterprise. The division is the leader in energetics, energetic materials, and Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) knowledge, tools, equipment. The division focuses on the research, development, test, evaluation, in-service support, and disposal of energetics and energetic systems as well as works to provide Soldiers, Marines, Sailors, and Airmen worldwide with the information and technological solutions they need to detect/locate, access, identify, render safe, recover/exploit, and dispose of both conventional and unconventional explosive threats.

Members of the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division team at Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head prepare a Tomahawk missile for a functional ground test at the Large Motor Test Facility in Indian Head, Md. The event marks the 84th functional ground test the Division has conducted since the program began 25 years ago (U.S. Navy photo by Monica McCoy/Released)
Members of the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division team at Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head prepare a Tomahawk missile for a functional ground test at the Large Motor Test Facility in Indian Head, Md. The event marks the 84th functional ground test the Division has conducted since the program began 25 years ago (U.S. Navy photo by Monica McCoy/Released)

 

Tomahawk cruise missile

Description

The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is an all-weather, long range, subsonic cruise missile used for land attack warfare, launched from U. S. Navy surface ships and U.S. Navy and Royal Navy submarines.

Features

Tomahawk carries a nuclear or conventional payload. The conventional, land-attack, unitary variant carries a 1,000-pound-class (453.6 kg) warhead (TLAM-C) while the submunitions dispenser variant carries 166 combined-effects bomblets (TLAM-D).

The Block III version incorporates engine improvements, an insensitive extended range warhead, time-of-arrival control and navigation capability using an improved Digital Scene Matching Area Correlator (DSMAC) and Global Positioning System (GPS), which can significantly reduce mission-planning time and increase navigation and terminal accuracy.

Tomahawk Block IV (TLAM-E) is the latest improvement to the Tomahawk missile family. Block IV capability enhancements include:

  1. increased flexibility utilizing two-way satellite communications to reprogram the missile in-flight to a new aimpoint or new preplanned mission, send a new mission to the missile enroute to a new target, and missile health and status messages during the flight;
  2. increased responsiveness with faster launch timelines, mission planning capability aboard the launch platform, loiter capability in the area of emerging targets, the ability to provide battle damage indication in the target area, and the capability to provide a single-frame image of the target or other areas of interest along the missile flight path;
  3. improved affordability with a production cost of a Block IV significantly lower than the cost of a new Block III and a 15-year Block IV recertification interval compared to the eight-year interval for Block III.

Background

Tomahawk cruise missiles are designed to fly at extremely low altitudes at high subsonic speeds, and are piloted over an evasive route by several mission tailored guidance systems. The first operational use was in Operation Desert Storm, 1991, with immense success. The missile has since been used successfully in several other conflicts. In 1995 the governments of the United States and United Kingdom signed a Foreign Military Sales Agreement for the acquisition of 65 missiles, marking the first sale of Tomahawk to a foreign country.

The Tomahawk is a highly accurate, GPS enabled precision weapon that has been used over 2,000 times in combat, and flight tested more than 500 times
The Tomahawk is a highly accurate, GPS enabled precision weapon that has been used over 2,000 times in combat, and flight tested more than 500 times

 

General Characteristics

Primary Function Long-range subsonic cruise missile for striking high value or heavily defended land targets
Contractor Raytheon Systems Company, Tucson, Arizona
Date Deployed
Block II TLAM-A IOC* 1984
Block III TLAM-C, TLAM-D IOC* 1994
Block IV TLAM-E IOC* 2004
Unit Cost Approximately $569,000
Propulsion Williams International F107 cruise turbo-fan engine; ARC/CSD solid-fuel booster
Length 18 feet 3 inch/5.56 m; 20 feet 6 inch/6.25 m with booster
Diameter 20.4 inch/51.81 cm
Wingspan 8 feet 9 inch/2.67 m
Weight 2,900 lbs/1,315.44 kg; 3,500 lbs/1,587.6 kg with booster
Speed about 478 knots/550 mph/880 km/h
Range
Block II TLAM-A 1,350 NM/1,500 statute miles/2,500 km
Block III TLAM-C 900 NM/1,000 statute miles/1,600 km
Block III TLAM-D 700 NM/800 statute miles/1,250 km
Block IV TLAM-E 900 NM/1,000 statute miles/1,600 km
Guidance System
Block II TLAM-A INS**, TERCOM***
Block III TLAM-C, D & Block IV TLAM-E INS**, TERCOM***, DSMAC****, GPS
Warhead
Block II TLAM-N W80 nuclear warhead
Block III TLAM-D conventional submunitions dispenser with combined effect bomblets
Block III TLAM-C and Block IV TLAM-E unitary warhead

* Initial Operational Capability

** Inertial Navigation System

*** TERrain COtour Matching

**** Digital Scene-Mapping Area Correlator

The latest variant (Tomahawk Block IV) includes a two-way satellite data-link that enables the missile to be retargeted in flight to preprogrammed, alternate targets
The latest variant (Tomahawk Block IV) includes a two-way satellite data-link that enables the missile to be retargeted in flight to preprogrammed, alternate targets

TALON for a Tiger

The United Arab Emirates-made Nimr – Arabic for «Tiger» – armored vehicle could get a major firepower upgrade, under a pact between Raytheon and Abu Dhabi-based Nimr Automotive that would outfit the rugged four-wheeler with Laser-Guided Rockets (LGRs) previously found only on helicopters (Hydra-70) and other aircraft.

A Nimr armored vehicle fires a rocket equipped with the TALON guidance system in this artist's illustration
A Nimr armored vehicle fires a rocket equipped with the TALON guidance system in this artist’s illustration

The project to arm the Nimr with TALON rockets is the latest in a series of international partnerships that bring Raytheon’s advanced engineering and innovation to U.S. allies worldwide. The deal was announced at the International Defence Exhibition and Conference in Abu Dhabi (IDEX 2015).

«If you look at the world today, the countries we used to sell to, they’re not happy to buy products off the shelf any more», said Steven C. Schultz, director of business development for land warfare systems at Raytheon Missile Systems. «They want to be true partners in terms of co-production, co-development, and in many cases be the prime contractor for some of these international pursuits».

Nimr Automotive is part of a company owned by Tawazun, a United Arab Emirates (UAE) strategic investment firm. Raytheon and Tawazun previously partnered to develop TALON, which is used to modify older, unguided rockets into laser-seeking weapons.

TALON is a low-cost, digital semi-active laser guidance and control kit that is mounted directly to the front of legacy 2.75-inch Hydra-70 unguided rockets
TALON is a low-cost, digital semi-active laser guidance and control kit that is mounted directly to the front of legacy 2.75-inch Hydra-70 unguided rockets

Other recent international collaborations include:

  • A partnership with Abu Dhabi Ship Building that provided the United Arab Emirates Navy with the Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) and the Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM). RAM is a lightweight, self-guided missile that travels faster than the speed of sound. ESSM is the world’s premier international cooperative missile production program, with 18 industrial partners representing 10 nations.
  • An agreement that designated Turkish missile maker Roket Sanavii ve Ticaret A.S. as a supplier for Raytheon’s Patriot Guidance Enhanced Missile-Tactical (Patriot GEM-T). The company, also known as Roketsan, is the first major trans-Atlantic supplier for the system and is strategically located to support countries in Europe, Asia and the Middle East.
  • A $1.7 billion Direct Commercial Sales contract in Saudi Arabia to upgrade Patriot systems to the latest Configuration-3.
  • A partnership with Lockheed Martin to provide the United Arab Emirates with advanced Patriot air and missile defense, along with support and training.
  • The U.S. Army’s Warfighter Field Operations Customer Support contract, under which Raytheon trains helicopter pilots in Afghanistan. Students graduate as commercial-level pilots.
The UAE’s Nimr Automotive, Tawazun and Raytheon disclosed a project to arm the 6 X 6 version of the Nimr vehicle with the Raytheon-Tawazun Talon 70-mm laser-guided rocket
The UAE’s Nimr Automotive, Tawazun and Raytheon disclosed a project to arm the 6 X 6 version of the Nimr vehicle with the Raytheon-Tawazun Talon 70-mm laser-guided rocket

Bringing TALON to the Nimr vehicle will meet a critical need, should the UAE Armed Forces adopt the system, Schultz said.

«TALON fills a gap between heavy, expensive, anti-tank guided missiles and unguided rockets», Schultz said. «There are a lot of missions for something like TALON. That’s the niche we’re filling».

A launcher fires a rocket equipped with the TALON guidance system
A launcher fires a rocket equipped with the TALON guidance system

 

TALON Laser-Guided Rocket

The weapon integrates Raytheon’s extensive experience in digital semiactive laser technology and proven history in precision air-to-air and air-to-ground munitions development and production. TALON’s architecture and ease of employment make it a low-cost, highly-precise weapon for missions in urban environments, counterinsurgency and swarming boat defense missions.

TALON is certified for use on U.S. Army Apache helicopters and Apaches in international fleets needing an affordable upgrade to the Hydra-70 rocket.

TALON was codeveloped with the United Arab Emirates.

TALON is fully compatible with existing airborne and ground laser designators.

TALON requires no hardware or software modifications to the launcher or aircraft platform and can be deployed from any aircraft that fires 2.75-inch (70-mm) Hydra-70 unguided rockets using the standard M260/261 launchers.

 

TALON is a low-cost, semi-active laser guidance and control kit that connects directly to the front of 2.75-inch (70-mm) Hydra-70 unguided rockets currently in U.S. and international inventories

 

Extended Range
AMRAAM

Raytheon Company has begun development on an extended range variant of the combat-proven Advanced Medium Range Air to Air Missile (AMRAAM). Designed specifically for ground-based air defense, AMRAAM-ER will enable intercepts at longer range and higher altitudes (Source: Raytheon Company).

NASAMS is a highly adaptable medium range solution for any operational air defense requirement. The system provides the air defender with a tailorable, state-of-the-art defense system that can maximize their ability to quickly identify, engage and destroy current and evolving enemy aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicle or emerging cruise missile threats
NASAMS is a highly adaptable medium range solution for any operational air defense requirement. The system provides the air defender with a tailorable, state-of-the-art defense system that can maximize their ability to quickly identify, engage and destroy current and evolving enemy aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicle or emerging cruise missile threats

«With AMRAAM-ER, Raytheon is rewriting the book on ground-based air defense. The new missile will be even faster and more maneuverable than the current AMRAAM», said Mike Jarrett, Raytheon vice president of Air Warfare Systems. «By leveraging many existing AMRAAM components, Raytheon can deliver AMRAAM-ER quickly and affordably with very low risk».

Raytheon will integrate AMRAAM-ER into the NASAMS (Norwegian Advanced Surface to Air Missile System) launcher.

Designed specifically for ground-based air defense, AMRAAM-ER will enable intercepts at longer distances and higher altitudes
Designed specifically for ground-based air defense, AMRAAM-ER will enable intercepts at longer distances and higher altitudes

NASAMS is the latest and most modern Medium Range Air Defense system. In partnership with Kongsberg, Raytheon has delivered more than 70 fire units to seven countries. It is the most commonly used Short and Medium Range Air Defense System in NATO.

«Combined with the NASAMS launcher, AMRAAM-ER will provide a new level of protection to customers», said Ralph Acaba, vice president of Integrated Air and Missile Defense at Raytheon’s Integrated Defense Systems business. «NASAMS is one of the most easily manned, trained, and maintained systems in the world».

Combined with the NASAMS launcher, AMRAAM-ER will provide a new level of protection
Combined with the NASAMS launcher, AMRAAM-ER will provide a new level of protection

Fielded in Norway for more than a decade, NASAMS is operationally deployed in the U.S. National Capital Region, Spain, Finland, the Netherlands, and an undisclosed country. It is also in production for Oman under a contract received last year.

Raytheon plans to flight test AMRAAM-ER before the end of the year.

 

The AMRAAM is a versatile and proven weapon with operational flexibility in a wide variety of scenarios, including air-to-air and surface-launch engagements. In the surface launch role, AMRAAM is the baseline weapon on the NASAMS launcher.

 

Fleet Air Defense

The U.S. Navy authorized ships in the Aegis Combat Weapon System baselines 5.3 and 3.A.0 series to carry the Raytheon Company Standard Missile-6 (SM-6). The authorization expands the missile’s use from five ships to more than 35 ships.

The USS John Paul Jones (DDG-53) used a Standard Missile-6 to destroy a supersonic high altitude target drone in a live fire tests June 18-20, 2014. (US Navy photo)
The USS John Paul Jones (DDG-53) used a Standard Missile-6 to destroy a supersonic high altitude target drone in a live fire tests June 18-20, 2014. (US Navy photo)

«SM-6 is the longest range integrated air and missile defense interceptor deployed, and its multi-role capabilities are unprecedented», said Mike Campisi, Standard Missile-6 senior program director. «Its use is transforming how we define fleet defense».

Raytheon has delivered more than 130 missiles to the U.S. Navy, which deployed SM-6 for the first time in December 2013.

SM-6 is a new surface-to-air supersonic missile capable of successfully engaging manned and unmanned aerial vehicles and fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft. It also defends against land-attack and anti-ship cruise missiles in flight.

Final assembly takes place at Raytheon’s state-of-the-art SM-6 and SM-3 all-up-round production facility at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama.

An SM-6 missile is loaded into a specialized container at Raytheon Redstone Missile Integration Facility for delivery to the U.S. Navy
An SM-6 missile is loaded into a specialized container at Raytheon Redstone Missile Integration Facility for delivery to the U.S. Navy

 

Standard Missile-6

SM-6 delivers a proven over-the-horizon air defense capability by leveraging the time-tested advantages of the Standard Missile’s airframe and propulsion.

  • The SM-6 uses both active and semiactive guidance modes and advanced fuzing techniques.
  • It incorporates the advanced signal processing and guidance control capabilities from Raytheon’s Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM).

Raytheon’s SM-6 is a key component in the U.S. Navy’s Naval Integrated Fire Control – Counter Air (NIFC-CA) providing the surface Navy with an increased battlespace against over-the-horizon anti-air warfare threats.

Model of the Standard Missile-6 outside the Raytheon factory that produces them in Huntsville, Alabama
Model of the Standard Missile-6 outside the Raytheon factory that produces them in Huntsville, Alabama

«The SM-6 is the newest addition to Raytheon’s highly successful Standard Missile family of missiles», said Wes Kremer, vice president of Air and Missile Defense Systems product line. «This missile can use both active and semiactive modes, giving the warfighter an enhanced ability to intercept beyond-line-of-sight targets».

SM-6 has also been selected to fulfill the U.S. Navy’s Sea-Based Terminal (SBT) role and will provide defense against ballistic missiles in their terminal phase of flight, succeeding the SM-2 Blok IV missile. The initial version of the SBT, Increment 1, is to enter service around 2015, with a subsequent version, called Increment 2, to enter service around 2018

«The SM-6 represents the cutting-edge compilation of decades of best practices», said Mike Campisi, Raytheon’s SM-6 senior program director. «It’s been a model program from concept through development and testing. We’ve delivered on time and on budget at every step in the process».

 

 

Eye of Sauron

According to Kris Osborn, Military.com Daily News correspondent, the U.S. Navy is making progress developing a more sensitive, next-generation radar system engineered to integrate onto new Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyers by 2023.

AMDR provides greater detection ranges and increased discrimination accuracy compared to the AN/SPY-1D(V) radar onboard today’s destroyers
AMDR provides greater detection ranges and increased discrimination accuracy compared to the AN/SPY-1D(V) radar onboard today’s destroyers

The Air and Missile Defense Radar, or AMDR, is said to be at least 30-times more sensitive than radars configured on existing DDG 51 Arleigh Burke-class destroyers. «Among other things, the additional power and sensitivity will allow the ship to detect a much wider range of threats at much greater distances», said Capt. Mark Vandroff, program manager DDG 51 Shipbuilding.

«I can see a target that is half the size, twice as far away. What this means is an individual destroyer will be able to engage more ballistic missiles at the same time versus what you have today – and it will be able to engage more advanced threats because it can see them farther away», Vandroff said. «It can see smaller objects farther away so it will be better at picking out what is a threat versus what is not a threat».

«The AMDR platform, being developed by Raytheon Co. under an EMD (Engineering and Manufacturing Development) contract awarded in October 2013, will enable next-generation Flight III DDG 51s to defend much larger areas compared with the AN/SPY-1D radar on existing destroyers», Vandroff said.

The Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR) Program successfully completed a Hardware Critical Design Review (CDR) in conjunction with prime contractor, Raytheon, in Sudbury, Massachusetts, December 3, 2014.

AMDR provides greater detection ranges and increased discrimination accuracy compared to the AN/SPY-1D(V) radar onboard today’s destroyers. The system is built with individual «building blocks» called RMAs (Radar Modular Assemblies). Each RMA is a self-contained radar transmitter and receiver in a 2’x2’x2’ box. These RMAs stack together to fit the required array size of any ship, making AMDR the Navy’s first truly scalable radar.

A partially-populated, full-sized AMDR array
A partially-populated, full-sized AMDR array

 

This advanced radar comprises:

  • S-band radar – a new, integrated air and missile defense radar;
  • X-band radar – a horizon-search radar based on existing technology;
  • The Radar Suite Controller (RSC) – a new component to manage radar resources and integrate with the ship’s combat management system.

AMDR Advantages:

  • Scalable to suit any size aperture or mission requirement;
  • Over 30 times more sensitive than AN/SPY-1D(V);
  • Can simultaneously handle over 30 times the targets than AN/SPY-1D(V) to counter large and complex raids;
  • Adaptive digital beamforming and radar signal/data processing functionality is reprogrammable to adapt to new missions or emerging threats.

 

 

The first line of defence

Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace and the Polish Ministry of National Defence have signed a contract worth $173.5 million for a second battalion-sized Nadbrzezny Dywizjon Rakietowy (NDR) unit of the Naval Strike Missile (NSM) Coastal Defence System, reported Doug Richardson, IHS Jane’s Missiles & Rockets correspondent.

A standard NASAMS unit has a modular design comprising a command post FDC, an active 3D radar AN/MPQ64F1 Sentinel, a passive electro-optic and infra-red sensor and a number of missile canister launchers with AMRAAM missiles
A standard NASAMS unit has a modular design comprising a command post FDC, an active 3D radar AN/MPQ64F1 Sentinel, a passive electro-optic and infra-red sensor and a number of missile canister launchers with AMRAAM missiles

NSM was originally developed as a shipboard system for the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNN), and entered service on Norway’s new Fridtjof Nansen-class frigates and Skjold-class corvettes in 2012. An earlier contract signed by Poland in 2008 covered the 6 launchers and 12 missiles needed to arm the first NDR, and deliveries started in mid-2013. This order made Poland the first export customer for the shore-based version. An additional 38 missiles and associated logistics equipment were ordered in December 2008.

A second NDR had always been planned, but in April 2014, Poland decided to speed its procurement as part of the country’s reaction to the current crisis in Ukraine.

The coast-defence variant uses command and weapon control system similar to that of the Kongsberg/Raytheon Norwegian Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System (NASAMS), while its radar system and communications system are provided by Polish subcontractors, as are the trucks used to carry the missile launchers.

The new contract will also cover the setting-up of a capability to maintain the NSM system in Poland. This will involve the Polish company Wojskowe Zaklady Elektroniczne (WZE). Kongsberg also plans to expand its co-operation with Polish industry to cover what Kongsberg president Harald Ånnestad described as «a broader technological arena».

 

Characteristics:

  • Open architecture provides growth potential;
  • Single and multiple engagement capability;
  • Unprecedented fire capability;
  • Beyond visual range capability with active seeker missile;
  • Strategic and high mobility;
  • Low manpower requirements;
  • Network Centric Warfare principles of operation;
  • High survivability against electronic countermeasures;
  • Look down/shoot down capability;
  • High value asset defense, area and army defense, vital point and air base defense.
The radar and launcher elements can be deployed over a large area separated by up to 25 kilometres, providing an extended coverage with few elements
The radar and launcher elements can be deployed over a large area separated by up to 25 kilometres, providing an extended coverage with few elements

 

Integration of sensors and effectors

The proven, fielded, reliable and highly capable NASAMS system contains a BMC4I (Battle Management, Command, Control, Computers, Communications, and Intelligence) Air Defense capability through the integration of sensors and launchers. It employs the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AIM-120) as the primary weapon. Targets are detected and tracked by a high-resolution, 3D pencil beam radar. Multiple of these radars and the associated Fire Distribution Centres (FDCs) are netted together via radio data links, creating a real-time recognized air picture.

NASAMS can fire on target data provided by external sensors. Advanced emission control features of the radars minimize the risk of revealing the NASAMS unit’s own position. The FDC automatically performs track correlation, identification, jam strobe triangulation, threat evaluation and weapon assignment. The AMRAAM missiles used within NASAMS are identical to those used on fighter aircraft, yielding considerable rationalization returns for the user.

 

NASAMS in operation

The Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF) was the first customer to introduce the NASAMS program. Because of their success during NATO live flying exercises, NASAMS batteries are taken extremely serious by NATO aircrew. From 2004, NASAMS is earmarked by the Norwegian armed forces to be deployed in support of international crisis management operations. NASAMS is under continuous development and every new program is adapted to the latest available technology. Currently, NASAMS is in use in 6 different nations.

NASAMS uses the Raytheon AMRAAM missile, identical to the AMRAAMs used on fighter aircraft
NASAMS uses the Raytheon AMRAAM missile, identical to the AMRAAMs used on fighter aircraft

 

NASAMS features

Status of NASAMS:                            In production and in operational use

NASAMS Tests & tactical firings:             162 (90,5 % success)

AMRAAM Dual use (identical missile): Fighter Aircraft and NASAMS

AMRAAM combat kills:                                  >9

Target sets:                                                            Aircraft, UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), helicopters, cruise missiles, UCAVs (Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles)

NASAMS Architecture:                                  Open SW & HW architecture, COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf software), Network Centric

Simultaneous multiple engagements: 72

Engagement modes:                                      Active and/or Passive

Mission of Reference:                                   >70,000 hours in the U.S.(continuous operations (24/7), ongoing)

Transportability:                        Air (C-130 and helicopter), Sea and Land

Data links (implemented and in use):  Link 16, JRE, Link 11, Link 11B, LLAPI, ATDL-1 (Army Tactical Data Link – 1)

Mission Planning Tool:                              Embedded and stand-alone (PC)

NASAMS User nations:                                 6

Air Defence C2 (FDC) User nations:   10

AMRAAM User nations:                             35

 

Ballistic Missile Defense

The U.S. is bolstering its ability to intercept ballistic missiles fired from North Korea with the deployment of another Raytheon missile-defense radar in central Japan, said Brendan McGarry, Military.com correspondent. In a joint announcement, the U.S. and Japanese governments said a second so-called Army Navy/Transportable Radar Surveillance system, or AN/TPY-2, made by Raytheon Co. has been installed on the island nation. The announcement follows discussions last year between President Barack Obama and Prime Minister Shinzo Abe involving deployment of the technology that drew opposition from China.

In forward-based mode, the radar is positioned near hostile territory, and acquires ballistic missiles in the boost (ascent) phase of flight, shortly after they are launched
In forward-based mode, the radar is positioned near hostile territory, and acquires ballistic missiles in the boost (ascent) phase of flight, shortly after they are launched

The mobile unit is based in Kyogamisaki in the central part of the country, complementing an existing system already located Shariki in northern Japan. The Kyogamisaki site is believed to be ideal for such purposes because any short- or medium-range missile launched from North Korea against American military defenses in Guam or Hawaii would probably fly over the region.

The first step in defeating a ballistic missile that has been fired is «seeing» it. And that is where Raytheon’s AN/TPY-2 X-Band radar comes in. A critical element in the Ballistic Missile Defense System, AN/TPY-2 continually searches the sky for ballistic missiles. Once it detects a missile, it acquires it, tracks it, and uses its powerful radar and complex computer algorithms to discriminate between the warhead and non-threats such as countermeasures.

Depending on the needs of the warfighter, the AN/TPY-2 radar can be deployed in two different modes. In forward-based mode, the radar is positioned near hostile territory, and acquires ballistic missiles in the boost (ascent) phase of flight, shortly after they are launched. It then tracks and discriminates the threat, and passes critical information required by decision makers to the Command and Control Battle Management network.

The high-resolution, X-band, phased-array radar can track all classes of ballistic missiles at various points in their trajectories
The high-resolution, X-band, phased-array radar can track all classes of ballistic missiles at various points in their trajectories

When the AN/TPY-2 radar is deployed in terminal mode, the radar’s job is to detect, acquire, track and discriminate ballistic missiles in the terminal (descent) phase of flight. The terminal-mode AN/TPY-2 also leads the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) ballistic missile defense system by guiding the THAAD missile to intercept a threat.

AN/TPY-2 has a record of flawless performance against all classes of ballistic missiles. In forward-based mode, it has proven capability against short-, medium and intermediate-range ballistic missiles. In terminal mode, AN/TPY-2 has demonstrated its ability to enable an intercept of short- and medium-range ballistic missiles. AN/TPY-2 can provide precise tracking information to any number of missile-defense batteries, including the truck-mounted THAAD, systems in the Pacific and the Middle East; the sea-based Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System; or the Ground-based Mid-course Defense System in Alaska and California.

According to public U.S. intelligence estimates, there are more than 6,300 ballistic missiles outside of U.S., NATO, Russian and Chinese control, with that number expected to grow to almost 8,000 by 2020
According to public U.S. intelligence estimates, there are more than 6,300 ballistic missiles outside of U.S., NATO, Russian and Chinese control, with that number expected to grow to almost 8,000 by 2020

The radar itself is composed of four mobile components: an antenna unit, an electronics unit, a cooling unit and a prime power unit, according to information from the manufacturer. The system can be transported in such cargo planes as the C-5 Galaxy and C-17 Globemaster III, as well as in ships, railroad cars and trucks.

The U.S. Army, which has already purchased five of the radars, had previously planned to purchase as many as 18 of the units, though that number was reduced amid automatic budget cuts known as sequestration. Last year, each was budgeted to cost about $173 million, according to budget documents.

 

 

Air trap

U.S. Air Force finds new effective ways to overcome the modern air defense system. According to Ashley Mehl, Raytheon, the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Air Force successfully collaborated with Raytheon Company for the first flight demonstration of a Miniature Air Launched Decoy Jammer (MALD-J) equipped with a radio data link. Adding the data link expands the weapon’s situational awareness and allows for in-flight targeting adjustments.

MALD is a flexible and modular system that has the potential to keep aviators and aircraft out of harm’s way
MALD is a flexible and modular system that has the potential to keep aviators and aircraft out of harm’s way

Raytheon flew a captive carry mission from the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station in Yuma (Arizona) to support a Marine Corps Weapons and Tactics Instructor exercise. The exercise used the USMC’s recently released Electronic Warfare Services Architecture protocol and a Tactical Targeting Network Technology radio.

«This flight test shows MALD-J’s ability to integrate new technology that will provide the warfighter more capabilities on the battlefield», said Mike Jarrett, vice president of Air Warfare Systems for Raytheon Missile Systems. «The Marines are operationalizing the Marine Air Ground Task Force Cyberspace and Electronic Warfare Coordination Cell and Raytheon is part of this forward-thinking solution to a complex problem».

MALD-J carried out its assigned radar-jamming mission on the range and was able to send situation awareness data to the Electronic Warfare Battle Manager (EWBM). The EWBM used this information to adjust the MALD’s mission while in flight.

MALD is an expendable air-launched flight vehicle that looks like a U.S. or allied aircraft to enemy integrated air defense systems
MALD is an expendable air-launched flight vehicle that looks like a U.S. or allied aircraft to enemy integrated air defense systems

 

MALD

The MALD is a low-cost, air-launched programmable craft that accurately duplicates the combat flight profiles and signatures of U.S. and allied aircraft. MALD is a flexible and modular system that has the potential to keep aviators and aircraft out of harm’s way. MALD is an expendable air-launched flight vehicle that looks like a U.S. or allied aircraft to enemy integrated air defense systems (IADS).

The U.S. and its allies can confuse and deceive enemy IADS by sending a formation of MALDs into hostile airspace. MALD weighs less than 300 pounds (136 kg) and has a range of approximately 500 nautical miles (575 statute miles, 926 km). After it is launched from its host aircraft, MALD flies a preprogrammed mission.

In addition to protecting valuable aircraft, MALD offers counter air operations to neutralize air defense systems that pose a threat to U.S. and allied pilots.

MALD is a low-cost, air-launched programmable craft that accurately duplicates the combat flight profiles and signatures of U.S. and allied aircraft
MALD is a low-cost, air-launched programmable craft that accurately duplicates the combat flight profiles and signatures of U.S. and allied aircraft

 

MALD-J

MALD-J is the jammer variant of the basic decoy, and the first ever stand-in jammer to enter production. The unmanned MALD-J navigates and operates much closer than conventional Electronic Warfare to the victim radar when jamming the electronics, allowing aviators and aircraft to stay out of harm’s way. Moreover, it is able to loiter in the target area for an extended period – plenty of time to complete the mission.

MALD-J can operate alone or in pairs, but is designed to work with and leverage other electronic warfare platforms. Raytheon began delivery of MALD-Js in the fall of 2012.