155 Successful
Test Flights

The U.S. Navy conducted successful test flights February 22 of two Trident II D5 Fleet Ballistic Missiles built by Lockheed Martin. This brings the D5 missile’s record to 155 successful test flights since design completion in 1989, a 25-year-plus reliability record unmatched by any other large ballistic missile.

The Mark 5 MIRV can carry up to 14 W88 (475 kt) warheads
The Mark 5 MIRV can carry up to 14 W88 (475 kt) warheads

«These latest test flights demonstrate the reliability of the D5 missile and the readiness of the entire Trident Strategic Weapon System every minute of every day», said Mat Joyce, vice president of Fleet Ballistic Missile programs and deputy for Strategic & Missile Defense Systems, Lockheed Martin Space Systems. «The Navy program office, the submarine crews and the industry team never rest to ensure the safety, security and performance of this crucial deterrence system».

The Navy launched the unarmed missiles in the Pacific Ocean from a submerged Ohio-class submarine. The missiles were converted into test configurations using kits produced by Lockheed Martin that contain range safety devices and flight telemetry instrumentation.

The Trident II Strategic Weapons System is an improved Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile with greater accuracy, payload, and range than the Trident C-4
The Trident II Strategic Weapons System is an improved Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile with greater accuracy, payload, and range than the Trident C-4

The Navy conducts a continuing series of operational system evaluation tests of the Trident Strategic Weapon System, which is the sea-based element of the nation’s nuclear deterrent triad, under the testing guidelines of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

First deployed in 1990, the D5 missile is aboard U.S. Navy Ohio-class and U.K. Royal Navy Vanguard-class submarines. The three-stage ballistic missile can travel a nominal range of 4,000 nautical miles (7,408 kilometers) and carries multiple independently targeted reentry bodies.

Trident II missiles are carried by 14 US Ohio and 4 British Vanguard-class submarines, with 24 missiles on each Ohio class and 16 missiles on each Vanguard class
Trident II missiles are carried by 14 US Ohio and 4 British Vanguard-class submarines, with 24 missiles on each Ohio class and 16 missiles on each Vanguard class

 

Trident II D5 Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM)

The Trident II D5 is the latest generation of the U.S. Navy’s submarine-launched fleet ballistic missiles, following the highly successful Polaris, Poseidon, and Trident I C4 programs. First deployed in 1990, the Trident II D5 missile is currently aboard Ohio-class and British Vanguard-class submarines. Each missile weighs approximately 130,000 pounds (58,967 kilograms).

Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, the Navy’s Trident missile prime contractor, developed and produced the missile and support equipment. The company also supplies technical and logistical support at sites where the missiles are deployed.

Maximum speed: approximately 18,030 mph/29,020 km/h/Mach 24
Maximum speed: approximately 18,030 mph/29,020 km/h/Mach 24

The FBM team continues to build on a remarkable mission success track record. Through June 2014, the Trident II D5 missile has achieved 150 successful test flights since design completion in 1989 – a record unmatched by any other large ballistic missile or space launch vehicle.

The first Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) developed and deployed by the United States was the Polaris A1 missile, named for the North Star. A two-stage ballistic missile with a range of 1,200 nautical miles (2,222 kilometers), the A1 was powered by solid fuel rocket motors and guided by a self-contained inertial guidance system independent of external commands or control. The A1’s first successful underwater launch from a submarine on July 20, 1960, brought to fruition a remarkable Navy and industry research and development effort begun only four years earlier. Subsequent Polaris missiles, the A2 and A3, increased the range and thus the operating area of the stealthy deterrent. U.S. deployment of the Polaris missile series ended with the retirement of the A3 in 1979.

The Trident II is a three-stage rocket, each stage containing a Solid-fuel rocket motor
The Trident II is a three-stage rocket, each stage containing a Solid-fuel rocket motor

The next generation of fleet ballistic missiles to follow Polaris was the Poseidon C3 missile. The Poseidon, despite being 20 inches (508 mm) wider in diameter, 36 inches (914 mm) longer and approximately 30,000 pounds (13,608 kilograms) heavier, fit into the same 16 launch tubes that carried Polaris. Poseidon carried twice the payload of the Polaris A3 with significantly improved accuracy. The first Poseidon test launch occurred on August 16, 1968. The first submarine-based test launch occurred on August 3, 1970, from USS James Madison (SSBN-627). The Poseidon was declared operational on March 31, 1971, and was deployed aboard all 31 Lafayette Class submarines.

The Trident I C4 missiles were the longest continuously operated Fleet Ballistic Missiles ever deployed by the U.S. Navy. Using advanced technology in propellants, micro-electronics and new weight-saving materials, the Trident I C4 missile incorporated the multiple independently-targeted vehicle capability of its predecessor Poseidon and provided an astounding range of more than 4,000 nautical miles (7,408 kilometers) with a full payload.

Extended Range
AMRAAM

Raytheon Company has begun development on an extended range variant of the combat-proven Advanced Medium Range Air to Air Missile (AMRAAM). Designed specifically for ground-based air defense, AMRAAM-ER will enable intercepts at longer range and higher altitudes (Source: Raytheon Company).

NASAMS is a highly adaptable medium range solution for any operational air defense requirement. The system provides the air defender with a tailorable, state-of-the-art defense system that can maximize their ability to quickly identify, engage and destroy current and evolving enemy aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicle or emerging cruise missile threats
NASAMS is a highly adaptable medium range solution for any operational air defense requirement. The system provides the air defender with a tailorable, state-of-the-art defense system that can maximize their ability to quickly identify, engage and destroy current and evolving enemy aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicle or emerging cruise missile threats

«With AMRAAM-ER, Raytheon is rewriting the book on ground-based air defense. The new missile will be even faster and more maneuverable than the current AMRAAM», said Mike Jarrett, Raytheon vice president of Air Warfare Systems. «By leveraging many existing AMRAAM components, Raytheon can deliver AMRAAM-ER quickly and affordably with very low risk».

Raytheon will integrate AMRAAM-ER into the NASAMS (Norwegian Advanced Surface to Air Missile System) launcher.

Designed specifically for ground-based air defense, AMRAAM-ER will enable intercepts at longer distances and higher altitudes
Designed specifically for ground-based air defense, AMRAAM-ER will enable intercepts at longer distances and higher altitudes

NASAMS is the latest and most modern Medium Range Air Defense system. In partnership with Kongsberg, Raytheon has delivered more than 70 fire units to seven countries. It is the most commonly used Short and Medium Range Air Defense System in NATO.

«Combined with the NASAMS launcher, AMRAAM-ER will provide a new level of protection to customers», said Ralph Acaba, vice president of Integrated Air and Missile Defense at Raytheon’s Integrated Defense Systems business. «NASAMS is one of the most easily manned, trained, and maintained systems in the world».

Combined with the NASAMS launcher, AMRAAM-ER will provide a new level of protection
Combined with the NASAMS launcher, AMRAAM-ER will provide a new level of protection

Fielded in Norway for more than a decade, NASAMS is operationally deployed in the U.S. National Capital Region, Spain, Finland, the Netherlands, and an undisclosed country. It is also in production for Oman under a contract received last year.

Raytheon plans to flight test AMRAAM-ER before the end of the year.

 

The AMRAAM is a versatile and proven weapon with operational flexibility in a wide variety of scenarios, including air-to-air and surface-launch engagements. In the surface launch role, AMRAAM is the baseline weapon on the NASAMS launcher.

 

Sale to Slovakia

The State Department has made a determination approving a possible Foreign Military Sale to Slovakia for UH-60M Black Hawk Helicopters and associated equipment, parts and logistical support for an estimated cost of $450 million. The Defense Security Cooperation Agency delivered the required certification notifying Congress of this possible sale on February 18, 2015.

A UH-60M Black Hawk helicopter sits on the flight line of Hunter Army Airfield June 10, where 3rd Combat Aviation pilots are training on the newly-fielded equipment
A UH-60M Black Hawk helicopter sits on the flight line of Hunter Army Airfield June 10, where 3rd Combat Aviation pilots are training on the newly-fielded equipment

The Government of Slovakia has requested a possible sale of:

  • 9 UH-60M Black Hawk Helicopters in standard U.S. Government configuration with designated unique equipment and Government Furnished Equipment (GFE);
  • 20 T700-GE-701D Engines (18 installed and 2 spares);
  • 20 Embedded Global Positioning Systems/Inertial Navigation Systems;
  • 2 Aviation Mission Planning Systems;
  • 1 Aviation Ground Power Unit;
  • 11 AN/APX-123 Identification Friend or Foe Transponders;
  • 20 Very High Frequency (VHF)/Digitally Selective Calling AN/ARC-231 radios;
  • 11 ARN-147 VHF Omni Ranging/Instrument Landing System (VOR/ILS);
  • 11 AN/ARN-153 Tactical Air Navigation Systems;
  • 11 AN/ARC-201D Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio Systems radios.

Also included are aircraft warranty, ammunition, air worthiness support, facility construction, spare and repair parts, support equipment, communication equipment, publications and technical documentation, personnel training and training equipment, site surveys, tool and test equipment, U.S. Government and contractor technical and logistics support services, and other related element of program and logistics support. The estimated cost is $450 million.

This proposed sale will contribute to the foreign policy and national security of the United States by helping to improve the security of a NATO ally.

General Characteristics
General Characteristics

The proposed sale will improve Slovakia’s capability to deter regional threats and strengthen its homeland defense, as well as support counter-terrorism operations. The sale of these UH-60 helicopters will bolster Slovakia’s ability to provide border patrol, rapid reaction, and field expedient firefighting capability for its air and ground forces in counter-terrorism, border security, and humanitarian operations. Slovakia will have no difficulty absorbing these helicopters into its armed forces.

According to the Defense Security Cooperation Agency, the proposed sale of this equipment and support will not alter the basic military balance in the region.

The principal contractors will be the Sikorsky Aircraft Company in Stratford, Connecticut; and General Electric Aircraft Company in Lynn, Massachusetts. There are no known offset agreements in connection with this potential sale.

Implementation of this proposed sale may require the assignment of an additional three U.S. Government and five contractor representatives in Slovakia to support the delivery and training for approximately two-five years.

There will be no adverse impact on U.S. defense readiness as a result of this proposed sale.

This notice of a potential sale is required by law and does not mean the sale has been concluded.

The crew of a UH-60M Black Hawk helicopter from 2nd Battalion (Assault), 10th Combat Aviation Brigade, Task Force Falcon, wait as a petroleum supply specialist assigned to E Company, 2nd Battalion (Assault), 10th Combat Aviation Brigade refuels their helicopter Aug. 20, at forward Operating Base Shank, Afghanistan
The crew of a UH-60M Black Hawk helicopter from 2nd Battalion (Assault), 10th Combat Aviation Brigade, Task Force Falcon, wait as a petroleum supply specialist assigned to E Company, 2nd Battalion (Assault), 10th Combat Aviation Brigade refuels their helicopter Aug. 20, at forward Operating Base Shank, Afghanistan

 

UH-60M Black Hawk Helicopter

The UH-60M helicopter culminates more than 30 years of technological advancement, improved performance and real world experience. This advanced Black Hawk aircraft serves dependably in the most extreme conditions found on earth. With the integration of the U.S. Army’s Future Combat Systems and automated aircraft health monitoring, the UH-60M provides superior vertical lift and is the «intelligent» choice for the battlefield of tomorrow.

 

General Characteristics

Primary Function:   Personnel recovery in hostile conditions and military operations other than war in day, night or marginal weather

Contractor:                 United Technologies/Sikorsky Aircraft Company

Length:                           64 feet 8 in/17.1 m

Height:                           16 feet 8 in/4.4 m

Rotor Diameter:       53 feet 7 in/14.1 m

Fuel Capacity:            4,500 pounds/2,041 kg

Payload:                         depends upon mission

Armament:                   Two 7.62-mm or .50 caliber machineguns

Crew:                               2 pilots, 1 flight engineer and 1 gunner

Initial operating capability:                            1982

Unit Cost:                      $40.1 million

Inventory:                     Active force, 67; ANG, 17; Reserve, 15

 

Powerplant and fuel system

Number of Engines:                                  2

Engine Type:                                                 T700-GE-701D

Maximum Take Off:                                 3,988 shp/2,974 kW

OEI Shaft horsepower (30 sec):        1,940 shp/1,447 kW

 

Capabilities

Crew @ total weight:                               4 @ 980 lbs/444.5 kg

Troops @ weight/each:                          11 @ 290 lbs/131.5 kg

Cargo hook capacity:                              9,000 lbs/4082 kg

UH-60M Blackhawk helicopters await their turn to takeoff from Simmons Army Airfield, Sept. 17, for the final evaluation flight certifying 82nd Combat Aviation Brigade pilots to fly the aircraft
UH-60M Blackhawk helicopters await their turn to takeoff from Simmons Army Airfield, Sept. 17, for the final evaluation flight certifying 82nd Combat Aviation Brigade pilots to fly the aircraft

 

Performance

Weight empty:                                            12,511 lbs/5,675 kg

Primary mission gross weight:          19,398 lbs/8,799 kg

Maximum Gross Weight:                     22,000 lbs/9,979 kg

Maximum Cruise Speed*:                    151 knots/174 mph/280 km/h

Maximum Range – No Reserve:      276 NM/317.5 miles/511 km

Vertical Rate of Climb, feet per minute

16,800 lbs/7,620 kg, 4000 feet/1,219 m, 95°F, 95% IRP**:                       1,553

18,000 lbs/8,165 kg, 4000 feet/1,219 m, 95°F, 95% IRP**:                       941

HIGE*** Ceiling:                                        10,520 feet/3,206 m

HOGE**** Ceiling:                                    6,010 feet/1,831 m

OEI***** Service Ceiling:                      6,500 feet/1,981 m

AEO****** Service Ceiling:                  15,180 feet/4,626 m

* 16,800 lbs/7,620 kg, 4,000 feet/1,219 m, 95°F @ 100% MCP (Mode Control Panel)

** Intermediate Rated Power

*** Hovering In Ground Effect

**** Hovering Out of Ground Effect

***** One Engine Inoperative

****** All Engines Operating

 

Accommodations

Cabin Length:                                               12.6 feet/3.8 m

Cabin Width:                                                 7.7 feet/2.3 m

Cabin Height:                                                4.5 feet/1.3 m

Cabin Area:                                                    88 feet2/8.1 m2

Cabin Volume:                                              396 feet3/11.2 m3

Baggage Volume:                                        20 feet3/0.5 m3

A UH-60 Black Hawk assists in airborne operations on June 22, 2014, near Adazi Training Area. Approximately 600 paratroopers from the 173rd Airborne Brigade have been deployed to Poland, Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia to conduct expanded land force training by demonstrating their commitment to NATO objectives of sustaining interoperability between allied forces (U.S. Army National Guard photo by Sgt. Sara Marchus, 116 Public Affairs Detachment/ Released)
A UH-60 Black Hawk assists in airborne operations on June 22, 2014, near Adazi Training Area. Approximately 600 paratroopers from the 173rd Airborne Brigade have been deployed to Poland, Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia to conduct expanded land force training by demonstrating their commitment to NATO objectives of sustaining interoperability between allied forces (U.S. Army National Guard photo by Sgt. Sara Marchus, 116 Public Affairs Detachment/ Released)

 

Airframe

  • Machined cabin structure
  • Multi-functional and durable 300 psi cabin flooring
  • Crashworthy Pilot and co-Pilot seats
  • Two sliding cargo doors with pop-out egress windows
  • Two jettisonable cockpit doors
  • Three point dual OLEO landing gear with kneeling capability
  • Active vibration control system
  • Wire strike protection system
  • Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS)
  • Foldable tail pylon for shipping and storage
  • Built-in work platforms, engine cowlings and hydraulic deck
  • Foldable stabilator

 

Cockpit

  • Four-axis fully coupled flight director
  • Digital map
  • Dual embedded global positioning
  • Integrated stormscope
  • Two UHF/VHF AM/FM radios
  • Five digital ICS stations
  • Automatic direction finder
  • VOR/ILS (VHF Omni Ranging/Instrument Landing System)
  • Dual digital flight control computer
Cockpit
Cockpit

 

Powerplant and fuel system

  • Two T700-GE701D engines
  • Auxiliary power unit
  • Dual crashworthy and self-sealing fuel tanks, 360 gallons/1362.75 L
  • Left and right gravity refuel ports
  • Single point for close circuit and pressure refueling

 

Rotor and drive system

  • Improved durability gearbox
  • Four wide-chord composite blades
  • Foldable main and tail rotor blades
  • Dual redundant and isolated flight controls
  • Rotor de-icing provisions

 

Electrical

  • Retractable landing light
  • Controllable searchlight
  • NVG (Night Vision) compatible formation lights
  • Portable maintenance light with three receptacles
U.S. Soldiers with the 1st Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment, Texas Army National Guard, take off in a UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter, waving to family and friends, at Camp Swift, Texas, Sept. 7, 2013. The exercise was part of the unit's family day and the unit's participation in the Paratrooper and Special Olympics event (U.S. Army National Guard photo by Spc. Michael Giles/Released)
U.S. Soldiers with the 1st Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment, Texas Army National Guard, take off in a UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter, waving to family and friends, at Camp Swift, Texas, Sept. 7, 2013. The exercise was part of the unit’s family day and the unit’s participation in the Paratrooper and Special Olympics event (U.S. Army National Guard photo by Spc. Michael Giles/Released)

Third flight test

The Long Range Anti-Ship Missile (LRASM) built by Lockheed Martin achieved a third successful air-launched flight test, with the missile performing as expected during low altitude flight. The test, conducted on February 4, was in support of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy joint-service LRASM program.

Lockheed Martin is the prime contractor for the DARPA/ONR funded Long Range Anti-Ship Missile (LRASM) program that is developing both an air- and surface-launch compatible anti-ship missile that will provide OASuW capabilities
Lockheed Martin is the prime contractor for the DARPA/ONR funded Long Range Anti-Ship Missile (LRASM) program that is developing both an air- and surface-launch compatible anti-ship missile that will provide OASuW capabilities

Flying over the Sea Range at Point Mugu, California, a U.S. Air Force Rockwell B-1B Lancer bomber from the 337th Test and Evaluation Squadron at Dyess Air Force Base, Texas, released the LRASM prototype, which navigated through planned waypoints receiving in-flight targeting updates from the weapon data link.

«LRASM continues to prove its maturity and capabilities in this flight test program», said Mike Fleming, LRASM air launch program director at Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control. «This much-needed weapon seeks to provide a new capability that would enable deep strike in previously denied battle environments».

LRASM is a precision-guided anti-ship standoff missile leveraging the successful Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile Extended Range (JASSM-ER) heritage, and is designed to meet the needs of U.S. Navy and Air Force warfighters in a robust anti-access/area-denial threat environment. JASSM-ER, which recently completed its operational test program, provides a significant number of parts and assembly-process synergies with LRASM, resulting in cost savings for the U.S. Navy and Air Force Offensive Anti-Surface Warfare programs.

The tactically representative LRASM is built on the same award-winning production line in Pike County, Alabama, as JASSM-ER, demonstrating manufacturing and technology readiness levels sufficient to enter the engineering, manufacturing and development phase and to meet urgent operational needs.

LRASM launched from a Rockwell B-1B Lancer attacks a maritime ship target during flight-testing (Photo courtesy of DARPA)
LRASM launched from a Rockwell B-1B Lancer attacks a maritime ship target during flight-testing (Photo courtesy of DARPA)

 

LRASM

Long Range Anti-Ship Missile is a new generation weapon system for Air- and Ship-Launched Anti-Surface Warfare (ASuW). LRASM is a precision-guided anti-ship standoff missile leveraging of the successful JASSM-ER heritage, and is designed to meet the needs of U.S. Navy and Air Force warfighters. Armed with a penetrator and blast fragmentation warhead, LRASM employs semi-autonomous guidance, day or night in all weather conditions. The missile employs a multi-modal sensor suite, weapon data link, and enhanced digital anti-jam Global Positioning System (GPS) to detect and destroy specific targets within a group of numerous ships at sea.

 

Background

Lockheed Martin is executing a LRASM contract, funded by DARPA and the U.S. Navy, to demonstrate tactically-relevant prototypes of a next generation anti-surface warfare weapon that can be either air or surface launched. The long-range capability of LRASM will enable target engagement from well outside the range of direct counter-fire weapons. LRASM will also employ enhanced survivability features to penetrate advanced integrated air defense systems. The combination of range, survivability, and lethality ensures mission success.

LRASM technology will reduce dependence on ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance) platforms, network links, and GPS navigation in aggressive electronic warfare environments. The semi-autonomous guidance capability gets LRASM safely to the enemy area, where the weapon can use gross target cueing data to find and destroy its pre-determined target in denied environments. Precision lethality against surface targets ensures LRASM will become an important addition to the Warfighter’s arsenal.

Lockheed Martin Corporation has invested $30 million into the shipboard integration effort, to be worked in partnership with LM Mission Systems and Sensors who is responsible for the Mk-41 VLS (Vertical Launching System) integration of the missile, and IS&GS who will be working the weapon control system integration (Photo courtesy of LM)
Lockheed Martin Corporation has invested $30 million into the shipboard integration effort, to be worked in partnership with LM Mission Systems and Sensors who is responsible for the Mk-41 VLS (Vertical Launching System) integration of the missile, and IS&GS who will be working the weapon control system integration (Photo courtesy of LM)

 

Specifications

Approach: Autonomous sensing and dynamic routing coupled with advanced signature control

Speed: Subsonic

Seeker: Multi-mode

Warhead: 1,000-pound penetrating blast fragmentation

 

Features

Engagement from well outside direct counter-fire ranges

High probabilities of target kill

LRASM prototypes demonstrated tactically relevant system maturity during flight tests in 2013

Rapid transition to meet Warfighter needs for ASuW weapon capability

 

Indian Navy

It said in The Times of India that in a major step towards building a formidable blue-water Navy for the future, the Modi government has cleared the indigenous construction of seven stealth frigates and six nuclear-powered attack submarines, which together will cost well upwards of Rs 1 lakh crore ($16.1 billion).

The Project 17A is a follow-on of the Project 17 Shivalik-class frigate for the Indian Navy
The Project 17A is a follow-on of the Project 17 Shivalik-class frigate for the Indian Navy

The Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) took these decisions in tune with the «critical necessity» for India to bolster its «overall deterrence capability» in the entire Indian Ocean Region (IOR), especially its primary area of strategic interest stretching from the Persian Gulf to Malacca Strait.

Under the over Rs 50,000 crore «Project-17A» for stealth frigates, four will be constructed at Mazagon Docks Limited (MDL) in Mumbai and three in Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE) in Kolkata. «The contract will be inked with MDL and GRSE this month itself, with an initial payment of Rs 4,000 crore», said a source.

Both the defence shipyards are already geared up for the project because it’s a «follow-on» to the three 6,100-tonne stealth frigates built by MDL, INS Shivalik, INS Satpura and INS Sahyadari, which were inducted in 2010-2012.

The new multi-mission frigates will be larger, faster and stealthier than the Shivaliks as well as packed with more weapons and sensors to operate in «a multi-threat environment». Nevertheless, it could well take a decade, if not more, to build all the seven frigates.

The complex project for the nuclear-powered submarines (SSNs) will take longer. After the CCS approval, technical parameters or Naval Staff Qualitative Requirements (NSQRs) will now be drafted for the over 6,000-tonne submarines.

INS Shivalik is the lead ship of her class of stealth multi-role frigates built for the Indian Navy
INS Shivalik is the lead ship of her class of stealth multi-role frigates built for the Indian Navy

The SSNs are likely to be constructed at the secretive Ship-Building Centre (SBC) in Vizag, where India’s first three SSBNs (nuclear-powered submarines with nuclear ballistic missiles) are being built to complete the country’s nuclear weapons triad.

The government has basically «reworked» the 30-year diesel-electric submarine-building plan, approved by the CCS in 1999, which envisaged induction of 12 new conventional submarines by 2012, followed by another dozen by 2030. However, with no new submarine inducted until now, the government has decided to go in for six SSNs and 18 conventional vessels, said sources.

Nuclear-powered submarines are much deadlier than diesel-electric submarines since they do not need to surface every few days to get oxygen to recharge their batteries. «SSNs, which usually carry only conventional missiles, can swiftly and quietly undertake long-range patrols. They can run at high speeds like 30 knots (34.5 mph/55.5 km/h) for much longer distances, hunting for targets and gathering intelligence», said an expert.

INS Chakra, the nuclear-powered Akula-II class SSN taken on a 10-year lease from Russia, may not be armed with long-range missiles due to international treaties, but has bolstered India’s depleting underwater combat arm that is currently grappling with just 13 ageing conventional diesel-electric submarines.

Armed with 300-km (162 NM/186 miles) range Klub-S land-attack cruise missiles and advanced torpedoes, INS Chakra can be a potent «hunter-killer» of enemy submarines and warships as well as provide effective protection to a fleet at sea.

INS Chakra, the nuclear-powered submarine taken on a 10-year lease from Russia
INS Chakra, the nuclear-powered submarine taken on a 10-year lease from Russia

German helo’s fleet

The German Ministry of Defense will next week submit to the Bundestag the helicopter procurement package it has renegotiated with Airbus HC, which covers 168 NH90, MH90 and Tiger helicopters at a cost of €8.7 billion, said the Defense-Aerospace.com. Thus, the first major arms deal concluded by Defence Minister Ursula von der Leyen is much more expensive than it is expected before.

Tiger helicopter – the most accurate and lethal on the market
Tiger helicopter – the most accurate and lethal on the market

Precisely, that is about 430 million euros more than the Ministry of Defense’s previous plan, concluded in 2013 by Leyen’s predecessor Thomas de Maizière. The extra cost is due to the cost of spare parts and equipment for the so-called «Sea Lion» – MH90 naval helicopter, which was not included in the previous plan. These are the main points that emerge from a confidential submission by the Ministries of Finance and Defence to the Budget Committee of the Bundestag, and obtained by the Deutsche Presse-Agentur (DPA) news service and Spiegel Online.

Defence Minister Ursula von der Leyen wants to end the long-running dispute over new helicopter procurement. This deal would be a first milestone of her term of office. Starting with the promise to clean up the chaotic field of armaments, she is renegotiating existing contracts. The new deal, although «not optimal», was «the best achievable result», according to an MoD staffer, who pointed out that the new MH90 Sea Lion helicopters are more capable than the naval NH90s which were originally planned.

According to the draft agreement, manufacturer Airbus Helicopters will receive 8.7 billion euros in payment for a total of 168 Tiger, NH90 and MH90 Sea Lion helicopters. That is about 240 million euros more than the 8.46 billion euros originally planned for 202 helicopters. The reduction in the number of helicopters was decided by Maizière as part of the Bundeswehr reform in 2011. Other weapons systems were also reduced, and negotiations were launched with several manufacturers.

The NH90 NFH is the most modern and the best naval helicopter in its class
The NH90 NFH is the most modern and the best naval helicopter in its class

The deal now agreed with Airbus calls for the following changes to the original contract:

  1. 68 instead of 80 Tiger combat helicopters for €3.55 billion instead of €3.77 billion. Only 40 Tiger will actually be used by the Bundeswehr, the others (older models already delivered) are to be used as spare parts.
  2. 82 instead of 122 NH90 transport helicopters for €3.77 billion instead of €4.69 billion.
  3. The Navy will also receive 18 MH90 (new designation) Sea Lions with special equipment for €1.38 billion.

The bottom line is that Airbus will deliver fewer helicopters (168) for more money, so instead of savings the new deal will bring additional costs. This is because, unlike her predecessors, von der Leyen has included the cost of technical support in her calculations.

Green Party MP Tobias Lindner says the Ministry has still failed in its reform. He says the Minister could have obtained more in her negotiations with Airbus: «Ursula von der Leyen has renegotiated de Maizière’s global deal, and though it has been renamed it is not substantially corrected». Overall, it remains «a bad and questionable deal, and anyone who found that the framework agreement of two years ago was bad, cannot approve this new deal».

The Budget Committee of the Bundestag is expected to decide next week on the helicopter deal, and German media consider it is highly likely that Bundestag will agree with the governing coalition’s plan.

NH90 TTH – a troop transport of up to 20 fully equipped troops
NH90 TTH – a troop transport of up to 20 fully equipped troops

Egyptian frigate

On Monday 16 February, DCNS signed a contract with the Ministry of Defence of the Arab Republic of Egypt for the supply of a FREMM multi-mission frigate. This agreement strengthens the strategic relations initiated by DCNS last July with the signing of a contract to supply four Gowind 2500 corvettes.

D651 «Normandie» FREMM multi-mission frigate (front view)
D651 «Normandie» FREMM multi-mission frigate (front view)

Hervé Guillou, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of DCNS, declared: «I would like to thank the Egyptian authorities for the trust they have once again placed in us, for the participation in the modernization of their defence system. DCNS will be keen to demonstrate that this trust is justified. The Group will do its utmost to ensure that this program is completed successfully».

The frigate, the current D651 «Normandie», will be delivered mid-2015 after some outfitting work, and the first phase of the training programme. The logistics and support services provided to the Egyptian Navy will then continue over several years.

D651 «Normandie» FREMM multi-mission frigate (rear view)
D651 «Normandie» FREMM multi-mission frigate (rear view)

For Hervé Guillou, «With this historical agreement, DCNS is pursuing a policy of long-term partnership with the Egyptian Navy and its shipyards, with whom we plan to invest in the long-term to develop their skills and industrial facilities. In addition, strengthening our relations opens new perspectives for the sale of vessels».

The FREMM delivered to the Egyptian Navy will be taken from the series currently under construction for the French Navy. To ensure that the operational capacities of the French Navy will not be affected, DCNS will speed up the rate of production of subsequent ships.

D651 «Normandie» FREMM multi-mission frigate (right side view)
D651 «Normandie» FREMM multi-mission frigate (right side view)

«I would like to stress that this success would not have been possible without a close-knit team in France and the tireless support of the French state services, in particular the French Defence Procurement Agency (DGA) and the French Navy, who accepted the postponement of delivery of its second frigate».

 

FREMM – multi-mission frigate

Multi-mission frigates are versatile vessels able to respond to all types of air, marine, submarine or land threats. FREMM frigates are at the cutting edge of technology and are perfectly suited to ensuring that client navies are able to respond to current threats and the growing needs of maritime security.

A frigate is a ship capable of carrying out several types of mission: protection of a so-called high-value vessel (e.g.: an aircraft carrier), anti-ship warfare, anti-submarine or anti-aircraft warfare, surveillance of a maritime area. A modern frigate is a warship whose dimensions, weapons and equipment allow it to:

  • Navigate on the high seas regardless of the weather conditions;
  • Attack and defend itself, regardless of the level and origin (land, air, sea) of the threat;
  • Attack land-based targets thanks to long-range missiles;
  • Operate alone or in cooperation.
D651 «Normandie» FREMM multi-mission frigate (sea trials)
D651 «Normandie» FREMM multi-mission frigate (sea trials)

These ships respond to the needs of client navies, including one international client, the Royal Moroccan Navy (701 «Mohammed VI»). These vessels also comply with the most recent MARPOL (MARine POLlution) standards for environmental protection.

With 12 frigates, DCNS is thus the prime contractor of the largest European naval defence program. The FREMM multi-mission frigates are equipped with the most recent technologies developed by DCNS and the best systems available on the market.

FREMM frigates are equipped with hybrid propulsion. In silent mode, the shafts and propellers are driven by electric motors ensuring the acoustic discretion required for anti-submarine warfare operations. In high-speed propulsion mode, the shaft lines are driven by a gas turbine. A retractable thruster ensures manoeuvring safety at quay and in the port. This thruster also acts as an auxiliary propulsion system in the event of a breakdown of the main propulsion system.

D651 «Normandie» FREMM multi-mission frigate (side view)
D651 «Normandie» FREMM multi-mission frigate (side view)

According to Defense-aerospace.com, the sale of the ship to Egypt will have a strong impact on the French navy, and will require a complete reshuffling of the crews of the FREMM frigates D651 «Normandie» and D652 «Provence», which both are nearing the end of their user trials.

Specifically, once the contract is signed, the current crew of D651 «Normandie» will transfer to D652 «Provence», which will be home-ported in Brest. There, it will work up its anti-submarine warfare capabilities on the Atlantic coast, as originally planned. The current crew of D652 «Provence» will be reallocated to another FREMM frigate, D653 «Languedoc», which is currently being completed by DCNS, for fitting out.

Mechanically, this sale will delay by several months the arrival of the FREMM frigates into the fleet, and will induce a one-year extension of the anti-submarine frigates D642 «Montcalm» and D643 «Jean de Vienne», whose decommissioning has now been pushed back to 2017 and 2018 respectively. These service life extensions will enable the Navy to ensure its mission of maintaining an operational presence on all oceans, 24/24 and 365 days a year.

 

Technical characteristics

Overall length:               466 feet/142 m

Width:                                 65.6 feet/20 m

Displacement:                6,000 tonnes

Maximum speed:          27 knots/31 mph/50 km/h

Crew:                                   108 persons (helicopter detachment included)

Accommodation capacity:     145 men and women

Range:                       6,000 NM/11,112 km at 15 knots/17 mph/28 km/h

 

The only solution allowing on-time delivery is to hand over to Egypt one of the FREMM originally intended for the French navy, which is currently fitting out at DCNS’s Lorient shipyard: the frigate «Normandie».

 

African Darter

According to Helmoed-Römer Heitman, Jane’s Defence Weekly correspondent, Denel Dynamics is close to completing the development of its new A-Darter – Short Range Air-to-Air Missile (SRAAM). The missile is in the final stage of air-launched guided evaluation firing trials, which have seen two missiles being launched from a Saab JAS-39 Gripen at the end of 2014 against Skua high-speed targets to confirm the guidance, control, and free-flight seeker performance, including a lock-on-after-launch engagement. These firings demonstrated a high-G performance even greater than required by the specification, the company said.

The A-Darter missile uses common LAU-7 type launchers, and is designed to work with standard MIL-STD-1553 databus systems
The A-Darter missile uses common LAU-7 type launchers, and is designed to work with standard MIL-STD-1553 databus systems

Two further missile firings are planned for the first part of this year to complete the testing process. The next phase of the development programme will be formal qualification, which will be concluded with a series of guided firings involving both the South African and Brazilian air forces to confirm performance acceptance.

Meanwhile, Denel is getting ready to industrialise the A-Darter and is negotiating a production contract for the South African Air Force (SAAF) with the country’s arms procurement agency, Armscor. Denel hopes to receive the contract during the first quarter of this year.

Denel is also in discussions with Brazil – which partnered with Denel Dynamics in the A-Darter development – to begin industrialisation in that country. Brazil’s decision to acquire the Gripen E/F as its future fighter will, to some extent, simplify its A-Darter integration as the SAAF has already gone through this process with its older Gripens. Denel is also beginning work with BAE Systems on integrating the A-Darter with the SAAF’s Hawk Mk 120 aircraft.

The A-Darter is a modern «body-lift» missile with thrust-vector control that gives it a very high angle of attack. It uses a multi-element imaging infrared seeker with a 180° field of view, and digital processing based on the latest available hardware and software. Its rocket motor has a low launch signature, making it harder to detect by countermeasures systems.

One important similarity with MBDA’s AIM-132 ASRAAM is a streamlined design with few control surfaces, in order to minimize drag and maximize range
One important similarity with MBDA’s AIM-132 ASRAAM is a streamlined design with few control surfaces, in order to minimize drag and maximize range

 

A-Darter

A-Darter is a leading wingtip fifth-generation Imaging Infrared (IIR) SRAAM air-to-air missile system. It has a lock-on after launch and memory tracking with the latest processing capabilities. The A-Darter may be designated to a target by using the aircraft’s radar, a helmet sight or the missile’s very effective autonomous scan feature if radar silence is required. The seeker’s large look-angles and the airframe’s agility enable high off-bore sight helmet-designated firings. Long-range intercepts beyond IR detection range are also possible with the lock-on after launch capability of the A-Darter.

The missile can be integrated on the latest and older generation aircraft platforms. It has already been integrated on the JAS-23 Gripen and integration on the Hawk Mk 120 is under way.

To take maximum advantage of that design decision, lock-on after launch capability will allow A-Darter to fly to a specified area before acquiring the target with its seeker head, using an inertial navigation system from BAE Systems (now divested as Atlantic Inertial Systems) for pre-lock navigation
To take maximum advantage of that design decision, lock-on after launch capability will allow A-Darter to fly to a specified area before acquiring the target with its seeker head, using an inertial navigation system from BAE Systems (now divested as Atlantic Inertial Systems) for pre-lock navigation

 

System Features

  • A-Darter is a leading wingtip mounted fifth-generation Imaging Infrared (IIR) SRAAM that will enhance air platform’s lethality.
  • Designed by Denel Dynamics (co-funded by Brazil), utilising its 50 years of air-to-air missile experience.
  • High agility (thrust vector controlled) to handle the closest of close combats.
  • A two-colour thermal imaging seeker with high sensitivity and a multi-mode ECCM (Electronic Counter-CounterMeasures) suite.
  • Advanced digital processing capability ensures improved performance in terms of image detection, false target rejection, ECCM, guidance and control.
It’s expected to be a 5th generation weapon
It’s expected to be a 5th generation weapon

 

Principle of Operation

The A-Darter may be designated to a target by using the aircraft’s radar, a helmet sight or the missile’s very effective autonomous scan feature if radar silence is required. The seeker’s large look-angles and the airframe’s agility enable high off-boresight helmet-designated firings. Long-range intercepts beyond IR detection range are also possible with the lock-on after launch capability of the A-Darter.

 

Technical Data

Length:                                              9.77 feet/2,98 m

Diameter:                                        6.53 in/166 mm

Mass:                                                  205 lbs/93 kg

Reports indicate modern thermal imaging technology with a wide «boresight angle» for targeting, reportedly a 90-degree look angle with cockpit-selectable seeker scan patterns. Track rate is reportedly about 120 degrees per second, and target acquisition is said to be quick
Reports indicate modern thermal imaging technology with a wide «boresight angle» for targeting, reportedly a 90-degree look angle with cockpit-selectable seeker scan patterns. Track rate is reportedly about 120 degrees per second, and target acquisition is said to be quick

Bird-Eye in India

Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) and India’s Alpha Design Technologies have signed a teaming agreement for the production and marketing of mini-Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in India. The IAI-Alpha cooperation includes IAI’s Bird-Eye 400 and Bird-Eye 650 mini UAS as well as other mini-Unmanned Aerial Systems, to accommodate the operational needs of Indian customers.

Israel Aerospace Industries Ltd. is Israel's largest aerospace and Defense Company and a globally recognized technology and innovation leader specializing in developing and manufacturing advanced, state-of-the-art systems for air, space, sea, land, cyber and homeland security
Israel Aerospace Industries Ltd. is Israel’s largest aerospace and Defense Company and a globally recognized technology and innovation leader specializing in developing and manufacturing advanced, state-of-the-art systems for air, space, sea, land, cyber and homeland security

Production of the systems will take place in India, while the marketing will be a joint effort of the two companies. Integration of additional applications and subsystems will be performed by Alpha in India with IAI’s support. Potential customers in India include security agencies and all defense organizations including police forces, coastguard and Border Security Forces (BSF).

Shaul Shahar, IAI VP and General Manager of the Military Aircraft Group said: «IAI’s teaming agreement with Alpha follows India’s policy for «Buy and make India». Our unique mini-UAS have proved exceptional operational capabilities. IAI’s knowledge in producing the world’s most advanced and innovative Unmanned Aerial Systems, with Alpha’s know-how and access to users will create a strong, fruitful partnership for the benefit of India’s defense and security organizations».

Col. H. S. Shankar, Chairman & Managing Director, Alpha Design Technologies Private Limited, Bangalore said: «The important vision of «Make in India» is being made fully effective by this joint effort. Alpha will meet the huge market in India and will examine further, later exports by Alpha, through IAI to various countries».

The Bird-Eye 400 system is an optimal solution for low echelon forces to obtain real time intelligence
The Bird-Eye 400 system is an optimal solution for low echelon forces to obtain real time intelligence

 

Bird Eye 400

The Bird Eye 400 is an advanced, affordable Mini UAV System providing real-time day/night imagery data for urban operation and «over the hill» intelligence. The Bird-Eye 400 offers a high-level of operational flexibility with latest generation Bird Eye 400 autonomous flight and mission capabilities.

Typical Missions

  • Surveillance
  • Reconnaissance
  • Damage assessment
  • Urban operation

Main Features

  • Safe, reliable and easy operation
  • Man-portable system with fast field deployment by 2 crewmen
  • «Under belly» camera for optimal coverage, stabilized picture with high-resolution imagery
  • Bungee launch and optimized recovery concept
  • Fully automated flight including Takeoff and Landing
  • Electrical propulsion for minimal audio signature
  • Low lifecycle cost
The Bird-Eye 400 system main features and capabilities are safe, reliable and easy operation
The Bird-Eye 400 system main features and capabilities are safe, reliable and easy operation

Technical data

Maximum takeoff weight:                 5.8 kg/12.76 lbs

Payload:                                                        Color TV/IR

Maximum payload weight:                1.2 kg/2.64 lbs

Engine:                                                           Electrical Propulsion

Wingspan:                                                    2.2 m/7.21 feet

Operational altitude:                            500-1500 feet/152-457 m AGL (Above Ground Level)

Endurance:                                                  up to 90 min

Mission radius:                                          20 km/6.25 miles

Maximum speed:                                      60 KTAS/69 mph/111 km/h

 

Bird-Eye 650

Advanced, affordable mini UAS, providing real time day/night imagery data for urban operation and over-the-hill intelligence. A high level of operational flexibility with the latest generation of autonomous flight and mission capabilities.

Main Features and Capabilities

  • 12-hour system operation, carried in three backpacks, operation by two persons
  • Wide coverage, stabilized day/night payload and moving target tracker
  • Fully automated and autonomous flight
  • Extremely low-visual and noise signature (electrical propulsion)
  • Unique survivability and safety fail safe recovery system, flip-over concept, parachute descent
  • Ruggedized portable GCS (Ground Control Station)
The Bird-Eye 650 system is an advanced solution for low echelon forces to obtain real time intelligence
The Bird-Eye 650 system is an advanced solution for low echelon forces to obtain real time intelligence

Typical Missions

  • ISTAR (Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance)
  • Urban Operation
  • Counter-terrorism
  • Law Enforcement
  • Patrol and Convoys Escort

Performance

Mission Radius:                               up to 50 km/31 miles

Endurance:                                         up to 5 h

Operational Altitude AGL:       up to 1,500 feet/457 m

Loiter Speed:                                     40 KTAS/46 mph/74 km/h

Maximum Speed:                           65 KTAS/75 mph/120 km/h

Technical Data

Maximum Take Off Weight (MTOW):   11 kg/24 lbs

Maximum payload weight:                            1.2 kg/2.6 lbs

Wingspan:                                                                3 m/9.84 feet

 

The Bird-Eye 400 system is an optimal solution for low echelon forces to obtain real time intelligence, independent of higher echelon sources

 

Global Umbrella

Across the globe, a variety of air and missile defense threats are evolving and proliferating. At the same time, adversaries are exploiting weaknesses in America’s air and missile defense system, said Brigadier General Christopher L. Spillman, commandant of the Army Air Defense Artillery School. Spillman and other missile defense experts met during an Association of the United States Army panel, February 12, to discuss how the United States could better attain networked mission command.

Like a missile defense dashboard, IBCS would one day control existing interceptor, missile and artillery systems along with futuristic laser, microwave and electromagnetic pulse weapons still in development
Like a missile defense dashboard, IBCS would one day control existing interceptor, missile and artillery systems along with futuristic laser, microwave and electromagnetic pulse weapons still in development

Adversaries are employing their own ballistic missile capabilities and coordinating them with cruise missile and unmanned aerial system threats, Spillman said, calling their efforts «complex and integrated». The Army needs to regain its air-defense advantage and «move beyond our current limited-point-defense», Spillman added. The reason for the urgency in addressing Air and Missile Defense, or AMD, vulnerabilities is due in large part to the current «inflexible, stove-piped command and control systems».

Major General Ole A. Knudson, program executive for the Program and Integration, Missile Defense Agency, said each military service has its own AMD architecture, but those architectures are not «entirely compatible» with one another.

That architecture, Spillman said, is much more complex than a just a physical network of fiber, relays, routers and servers. It also involves connectivity between sensors, radars, launchers and shooters. The systems need to communicate seamlessly across the battlespace to more effectively engage the enemy and reduce risk from errors, including those that result in fratricide.

Barry J. Pike, deputy program executive officer, program executive office missile and space, said that fixing AMD integration weak points is so important because it is «a foundational capability the Army provides» to combatant commanders, as outlined in the recently released Army Operating Concept.

A Ground-based Interceptor roars into the sky carrying a Raytheon-built Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle on June 22, 2014. The kill vehicle destroyed a simulated ballistic missile high over the Pacific Ocean (Missile Defense Agency photo)
A Ground-based Interceptor roars into the sky carrying a Raytheon-built Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle on June 22, 2014. The kill vehicle destroyed a simulated ballistic missile high over the Pacific Ocean (Missile Defense Agency photo)

 

IAMD-Battle Command System Solution

The services are working together now to integrate AMD networks and mission-command functions through an effort known as Integrated Air and Missile Defense – Battle Command System, or IBCS, Spillman said. He noted that IBCS will give combatant commanders and AMD «a flexibility that doesn’t exist today. It will transform the force».

Barry Pike said that with IBCS, the Army hopes to partner with industry to build non-proprietary network capabilities that are modular, and that have open-system architecture that uses existing industry standards. The idea is to have common human-system interface requirements that allow standardization, more rapid development, cost reduction and future add-ons, he said. Testing is well underway on integration efforts with the other services, Pike said.

Raytheon’s newest variant, the SM-3 Block IB, is launched from a U.S. Navy ship during testing
Raytheon’s newest variant, the SM-3 Block IB, is launched from a U.S. Navy ship during testing

Daniel J. Verwiel, vice president and general manager of integrated air and missile defense for Northrop Grumman Information Systems, said that IBCS efforts will ultimately lead to handing off AMD «to the best possible shooter», be it from a ship or the shore.

Spillman said that at the same time the Army develops the IBCS, it will also need to prepare to train Soldiers to use it. Soldiers will need adequate time to train on new systems and leaders will have to be the ones who successfully execute any new implementation.

Spillman said AMD, with all its weaknesses, is deployed worldwide in support of combatant commanders to shape the environment, enable projection of national power, defend the homeland and reassure allies.

Around 58% of the AMD force is forward-deployed or forward-stationed, he said.

 

NATO intelligence reports indicate the threat of ballistic missiles is increasing in number and complexity. By 2018, all of Europe could be at risk.