Category Archives: Radars

Airspace Threat Detection

As the world’s most capable and flexible ground based multi-function long-range radar, Lockheed Martin’s TPY-4 has received its official U.S. Government nomenclature – AN/TPY-4(V)1 – officially marking the radar’s maturity and its ability to deliver fully-digital technology, and therefore setting a new standard for the future of radars.

AN/TPY-4(V)1
TPY-4 is a fully digital, software-defined sensor architecture, allowing users to maintain ongoing surveillance throughout the mission (Photo courtesy Lockheed Martin)

«Our team has worked diligently to deliver this advanced radar supporting domestic and international air surveillance requirements», said Chandra Marshall, vice president and general manager at Lockheed Martin. «This designation represents our commitment to furthering our radar capabilities to specifically overmatch emerging, complex, and advanced threats».

Lockheed Martin’s specialized team has spent more than 10 years and more than $100 million in research & development funds for the TPY-4 radar, including the construction, operation, and testing of prototype radar systems. TPY-4 offers multi-mission capabilities, such as early warning, situational awareness, tactical ballistic missile surveillance and air defense. It also integrates the latest mature commercial technologies to create a revolutionary radar architecture.

 

Recent Testing Achievements

The first TPY-4 is well ahead of any competition and already in production to be unveiled later this year. The radar’s production sub-assemblies are passing environmental and performance tests, attributed to the foundation built and validated under Lockheed Martin’s investment and the commonality with the U.S. Army’s Sentinel A4 radar. The radar’s test results continue to surpass model predictions, as validated by open air testing, furthering the qualification of this advanced radar.

 

The TPY-4 Radar: A Fully Digital Solution for Today’s and Tomorrow’s Threats

TPY-4 is an internationally available, transportable, multi-mission radar that can operate in contested RF environments and provide the warfighter an ability to detect and track threats better than any previous radar available today. It accomplishes this with a fully digital, software-defined sensor architecture, allowing users to maintain ongoing surveillance throughout the mission.

That’s because the TPY-4 radar users are not locked by the system’s hardware. Users have the ability to transmit and receive digitally, allowing for more enhanced target identification and classification. Earlier radars may have some level of digitization, but Lockheed Martin’s software-defined TPY-4 radar is digital at every element and across the entire architecture. Users don’t have to account for downtime for time-consuming actions, like hardware upgrades or manual data transfers.

«Our digital transmitter and receiver architecture provides flexibility to adjust performance for evolving missions, threats, and environments», said Rick Herodes, Lockheed Martin’s Radar and Sensor System’s Ground Based Air Surveillance program director. «TPY-4 provides unprecedented flexibility through software updates without invasive or time-consuming architectural redesigns, therefore making it the most effective risk management solution for national defense».

 

Lockheed Martin Radar Family History

TPY-4 was developed to include all the experience that Lockheed Martin’s radar product family offers. The technology investments include Gallium Nitride (GaN), which Lockheed Martin has been delivering worldwide since 2017, providing greater efficiency and improved reliability as compared to legacy systems.

Lockheed Martin’s long range and medium range surveillance radars have set the industry standard for ground-based air surveillance for decades. With more than 60 years of experience developing and delivering ground-based radar solutions to its customers around the world, Lockheed Martin has a long history of high-performing, high-reliability radar systems.

Prototype Sensor

Raytheon Intelligence & Space (RI&S), a Raytheon Technologies business, has received an award through an Other Transaction Agreement (OTA) with the Consortium Management Group, Inc., on behalf of the Consortium for Command, Control and Communications in Cyberspace (C5) to demonstrate, develop, build and integrate prototype sensors for the U.S. Army’s next generation airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance system, called High-Accuracy Detection and Exploitation System, or HADES.

HADES
Raytheon Intelligence & Space to provide prototype sensor for U.S. Army’s HADES

«In future peer-to-peer conflicts, long-distance sensing from very high altitudes will be key to enabling our forces to achieve their objectives for long-range, precision fires», said Michael Fisher, vice president and general manager of Raytheon Applied Signal Technology (AST) at RI&S.

The Other Transaction Authority agreement is for Phase 1 of the HADES Multi-Domain Sensing System, or MDSS, program to provide electronic intelligence and communications intelligence sensors. RI&S will demonstrate system capabilities that will help inform the design, upgrades and prototype fabrication of future phases of the program.

«Raytheon AST has a 35-plus year history of developing intelligence-collection sensors, as well as high-speed signal processing», said Fisher. «And solutions across RI&S cover a broad range of mission requirements that could define the future HADES program».

HADES will be a globally deployable platform that provides multi-faceted sensing capabilities at higher altitudes and longer ranges, and with longer endurance than current platforms.

Effort sponsored by the U.S. Government under Other Transaction number W15QKN-17-9-5555 between the Consortium Management Group, Inc., and the Government. The U.S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon.

The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Government.

Integration and Validation

Northrop Grumman Corporation delivered the Arrays at Commercial Timescales Integration and Validation (ACT-IV) system to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The system is based on an advanced digital Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) that completed multiple successful demonstrations and acceptance testing at Northrop Grumman test facilities.

ACT-IV
Northrop Grumman tests its Arrays at Commercial Timescales Integration and Validation (ACT-IV) digital AESA system for the AFRL and DARPA at the company radar range in Linthicum, Maryland (Source: Northrop Grumman)

«The development of the ACT-IV system is a breakthrough in AESA performance and marks an important milestone in the nation’s transition to digitally reprogrammable multifunction Radio Frequency (RF) systems», said William Phillips, director, multifunction systems, Northrop Grumman. «The new ACT-IV capabilities have the agility to defeat complex emerging threats and will be used to enhance the next generation of integrated circuits and AESAs that are currently in our digital AESA product pipeline».

ACT-IV is one of the first multifunction systems based on a digital AESA using the semiconductor devices developed on the DARPA Arrays at Commercial Timescales (ACT) program. By applying the flexibility of the digital AESA, the ACT-IV system can perform radar, electronic warfare and communication functions simultaneously by controlling a large number of independent digital transmit/receive channels. The agility of the digital AESA was demonstrated during multiple demonstrations at the Northrop Grumman test range and will enable future warfighters to quickly adapt to new threats, control the electromagnetic spectrum, and connect to tactical networks in support of distributed operations.

The ACT-IV system will be a foundational research asset for the Department of Defense’s multi-service research initiative for digital radars and multifunction systems. This initiative will support a community of researchers that are developing new algorithms and software to explore the possibilities of next generation digital AESAs for national security missions.

The algorithms, software and capabilities developed on ACT-IV will transition into next generation multifunction RF systems to support advanced development programs throughout the Department of Defense.

«This delivery is the culmination of the close collaboration between the teams at AFRL, DARPA and Northrop Grumman», said Doctor Bae-Ian Wu, ACT-IV project lead, Sensors Directorate, AFRL. «The ACT-IV system is being prepared for initial testing by the AFRL Sensors Directorate as part of a strategic investment to develop and test the technologies for multifunction digital phased array systems in an open-architecture environment for the larger DoD community».

Northrop Grumman is the industry leader in developing mission-capable, cost-efficient, open-architecture and multi-function radar and sensor systems to observe, orient and act across all domains – land, sea, air and space. They provide the joint forces with the intelligence they need to operate safely in today’s multi-domain operational environment.

Northrop Grumman solves the toughest problems in space, aeronautics, defense and cyberspace to meet the ever evolving needs of our customers worldwide. Our 90,000 employees define possible every day using science, technology and engineering to create and deliver advanced systems, products and services.

Terracotta sensor

Northrop Grumman Corporation has successfully flight demonstrated its new Terracotta sensor – a fully-digital Open Mission Systems (OMS)-compliant wideband Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA).

Terracotta sensor
Terracotta’s nearly 200 wideband digital channels can be molded cooperatively or segmented for unique purposes

The flight test was a follow-on to successful ground and flight demonstrations of Terracotta conducted last fall. This most recent flight verified Terracotta’s ability to simultaneously perform active and passive radio frequency capabilities. Terracotta’s nearly 200 wideband digital channels can be molded cooperatively or segmented for unique purposes, including electronic warfare, airborne early warning radar, active and passive sensing, and communications.

«As a fully-digital multifunction sensor with a wide operating bandwidth, Terracotta can seamlessly provide adaptive spectrum maneuverability», said Paul Kalafos, vice president, surveillance and electromagnetic maneuver warfare. «The sensor’s architecture is easily scaled and configured for many applications and systems across all domains. It represents a key enabling technology for joint all domain operations».

Unlike traditional sensors, multifunction apertures consolidate multiple capabilities into a single sensor, decreasing both the number of apertures needed and the size, weight, and power requirements for the advanced capabilities. Sophisticated multifunction apertures like Terracotta can deploy several functions simultaneously.

OMS compliance offers an interface solution based on open architecture design allowing customers to rapidly add new or improved capabilities, regardless of supplier, at a reduced cost. Northrop Grumman plans to integrate a combination of OMS/Open Communication Systems sensors and software-defined radios across multiple platforms, networks and nodes to address driving mission needs and ensure multi-domain interoperability. To learn more about Northrop Grumman’s role in advancing the DOD’s Joint All Domain Command and Control (JADC2) vision, visit the company’s website.

Northrop Grumman solves the toughest problems in space, aeronautics, defense and cyberspace to meet the ever evolving needs of our customers worldwide. Our 90,000 employees define possible every day using science, technology and engineering to create and deliver advanced systems, products and services.

First SPY-6 Radar

Raytheon Missiles & Defense completed comprehensive near-field range testing on the first AN/SPY-6(V)1 radar array, signaling its readiness to be wrapped, packed and shipped to the U.S. Navy’s future USS Jack H. Lucas, DDG-125. The 14’ by 14’ modular array will deliver unprecedented integrated air and missile defense and air defense capabilities to Flight III guided missile destroyers and seven types of U.S. Navy ships.

An AN/SPY-6(V)1 radar array is shown during testing in Raytheon Missiles & Defense’s Andover, MA-based Radar Development Facility. SPY-6 will deliver significantly enhanced integrated air and missile defense capability to the surface fleet by simultaneously addressing ballistic and cruise missiles, surface ships, fighter jets and other advanced threats

«The goal of near-field range testing is to increase integration speed, drive out risk and ensure SPY-6 is primed for installation», said Scott Spence, senior director of Naval Radar Systems. «When SPY-6 radar arrays leave our radar development facility, they are ready to defend the surface fleet».

Before leaving the automated, 30,000 square-foot/2,787 square-meter radar development facility, all SPY-6 arrays undergo extensive testing that includes:

  • Operational health evaluation of more than 5,000 transmit and receive radiating elements;
  • Alignment and calibration of nearly 150 subarray channels and 5,000 radar elements;
  • Collection and validation of over 42,000 «golden database» parameters that allows automatic recalibration of the array during at-sea maintenance;
  • Collection, analysis and verification of over 300 transmit and receive array beam patterns.

Raytheon Missiles & Defense has invested more than $500 million in infrastructure and capacity enhancements, including advanced automation technology, for SPY-6 since the program’s inception. Additional construction on expanded production areas dedicated to transmit/receive integrated microwave modules and radio frequency heads – key radar components – will be completed this year.

 

SPY-6(V)1

Designed for the DDG 51 Flight III destroyers, SPY-6(V)1 features:

  • 4 array faces – each with 37 RMAs (Radar Modular Assemblies) – providing continuous, 360-degree situational awareness;
  • Significantly enhanced range and sensitivity compared to the radar it replaces.

SPY-6(V)1 simultaneously defends against:

  • Ballistic missiles;
  • Cruise missiles;
  • Anti-surface and anti-air threats;
  • Jamming/clutter and electronic warfare.

 

SPY-6(V)2

Designed for amphibious assault ships and Nimitz-class carriers, SPY-6(V)2 – also known as the Enterprise Air Surveillance Radar (rotator variant) – features:

  • 1 rotating array face – with 9 RMAs – providing continuous, 360-degree situational awareness;
  • Air traffic control and ship self-defense capabilities.

SPY-6(V)2 simultaneously defends against:

  • Cruise missiles;
  • Anti-surface and anti-ship threats;
  • Jamming/clutter and electronic warfare.

 

SPY-6(V)3

Designed for Ford-class aircraft carriers and FFG(X) guided missile frigates, SPY-6(V)3 – also known as the Enterprise Air Surveillance Radar (fixed variant) – features:

  • 3 fixed-face array faces – each with 9 RMAs – providing continuous, 360-degree situational awareness;
  • Air traffic control and ship self-defense capabilities.

SPY-6(V)3 simultaneously defends against:

  • Cruise missiles;
  • Anti-surface and anti-ship threats;
  • Jamming/clutter and electronic warfare.

 

SPY-6(V)4

Designed for DDG-51 Flight IIA destroyers, SPY-6(V)4 features:

  • 4 array faces – each with 24 RMAs – providing continuous, 360-degree situational awareness;
  • Significantly enhanced range and sensitivity compared to the radar it replaces.

SPY-6(V)4 simultaneously defends against:

  • Ballistic missiles;
  • Cruise missiles;
  • Anti-surface and anti-air threats;
  • Jamming/clutter and electronic warfare.

Sentinel A4 Radar

Just four months after the initial contract award, the U.S. Army’s Sentinel A4 radar program already achieved several key milestones. In January, the U.S Army approved the program’s Systems Requirement Review (SRR), Systems Functional Review (SFR), and the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for one of the subsystems.

Sentinel A4 Array Subsystem (Photo Courtesy: Lockheed Martin)

«Traditionally, the SRR and PDR take place several months apart, but thanks to Lockheed Martin’s preparation, investment and our technically mature radar solution, we are able to support the Army’s need to field the system more rapidly», said Mark Mekker, director, Lockheed Martin Army radar programs. «We have achieved every milestone while working on a very aggressive timeline in order to deliver the radar on schedule».

Lockheed Martin’s open scalable radar architecture is the cornerstone of the radar system’s design and will allow for future upgrades that not only extend the life of the radar, but address threats to our warfighters that will evolve over the next 40 years.

The U.S. Army awarded Lockheed Martin a $281-million contract to develop the Sentinel A4 system in September 2019. The new air and missile defense radar will provide improved capability against cruise missiles, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), rotary wing and fixed wing, and rocket, artillery, and mortar threats.

The radar will also provide enhanced surveillance, detection, and classification capabilities against current and emerging aerial threats in order to protect U.S. Army maneuver formations and high-value static assets to include: command and control nodes, tactical assembly areas and geo-political centers.

 

Proven Radar Experience

With broad and deep experience developing and delivering ground-based radar solutions to our customers, our high-performing, high-reliability, Solid State Radar (SSR) systems specialize in counter target acquisition, early warning, situational awareness, and integrated air and missile defense. Our radars are designed with the highest degree of commonality and fully integrated SSR systems. They can operate in all environments, are available in highly mobile configurations, and are deployed worldwide. It’s why Lockheed Martin’s ground-based radars are the choice of more than 45 nations on six continents.

Next-generation radar

Raytheon Company completed the first round of testing of the first partially populated radar antenna array for the U.S. Army’s Lower Tier Air and Missile Defense Sensor, or LTAMDS. The milestone comes less than five months after the U.S. Army selected Raytheon to build LTAMDS, a next-generation radar that will defeat advanced threats like hypersonic weapons.

Raytheon completes first round of testing for new Lower Tier Air & Missile Defense radar

«Concluding these initial tests brings Raytheon one step closer to putting LTAMDS into the hands of service members», said Tom Laliberty, vice president of Integrated Air and Missile Defense at Raytheon’s Integrated Defense Systems business. «Raytheon and our supplier partners continue to make the right investments in people, technology and manufacturing capability to ensure we meet the U.S. Army’s Urgent Materiel Release».

The testing consisted of calibrating LTAMDS primary antenna array in an indoor, climate controlled test range, and evaluating its performance against simulated targets. With testing complete, the array is being mounted on a precision-machined enclosure for integration and further evaluation. It will then commence testing at an outdoor range against real-world targets.

LTAMDS consists of a primary antenna array on the front of the radar, and two secondary arrays on the rear. The radar antennas work together to enable operators to simultaneously detect and engage multiple threats from any direction, ensuring there are no blind spots on the battlefield. LTAMDS’ primary array is roughly the same size as the Patriot radar array, but provides more than twice Patriot’s performance. While it is designed for the U.S. Army’s Integrated Air and Missile Defense system, LTAMDS will also be able to preserve previous Patriot investments.

Raytheon is working closely with hundreds of suppliers across 42 states, including a core team playing a strategic role in building the LTAMDS solution. They are:

  • Crane Aerospace & Electronics;
  • Cummings Aerospace;
  • IERUS Technologies;
  • Kord Technologies;
  • Mercury Systems;
  • nLogic

Next-generation radar

Raytheon Company finished building the first radar antenna array for the U.S. Army’s Lower Tier Air and Missile Defense Sensor (LTAMDS). Raytheon completed the work less than 120 days after the U.S. Army selected Raytheon to build LTAMDS, a next-generation radar that will defeat advanced threats like hypersonic weapons.

Raytheon’s LTAMDS design is a simultaneous 360-degree, Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar powered by the company’s Gallium Nitride (GaN) circuits, which strengthen the radar signal and enhance its sensitivity

«Raytheon’s employees and partners are focused on delivering the first LTAMDS by the Army’s Urgent Material Release date because we know how important expanded battlespace coverage and other capabilities are to the men and women in uniform», said Tom Laliberty, vice president of Integrated Air and Missile Defense at Raytheon’s Integrated Defense Systems business. «Because we invested in cutting-edge radar technology and advanced manufacturing capability, we will meet the customer’s critical milestones and get LTAMDS in the field rapidly».

The newly built primary array, similar in size to the Patriot radar array, will provide more than twice its performance.  Following extensive testing, the radar array will be mounted on a precision-machined enclosure for integration and further evaluation. The enclosure utilizes advanced design and manufacturing techniques for accelerated manufacture to support the U.S. Army’s Urgent Materiel Release program.

Raytheon is working closely with hundreds of suppliers across 42 states, including a core team playing a strategic role in building the LTAMDS solution. They are:

  • Crane Aerospace & Electronics;
  • Cummings Aerospace;
  • IERUS Technologies;
  • Kord Technologies;
  • Mercury Systems;
  • nLogic.

Advanced Electronics

BAE Systems was awarded a contract from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to develop the next generation of mixed-signal electronics that could enable new Department of Defense (DoD) applications including high capacity, robust communications, radars, and precision sensors, and lead to solutions that enhance situational awareness and survivability for the warfighter.

DARPA selects BAE Systems to build powerful next-generation advanced electronics

Recognizing that the DoD has performance demands that far exceed the capabilities of the commercial world in terms of speed, fidelity, capacity, and precision, DARPA created the Technologies for Mixed mode Ultra Scaled Integrated Circuits (T-MUSIC) program to enable disruptive Radio Frequency (RF) mixed-mode technologies by developing high performance RF analog electronics integrated with advanced digital electronics on the same wafer.

The next-generation capabilities that could be made possible with this program include a combination of wide spectral coverage, high resolution, large dynamic range, and high information processing bandwidth. These capabilities, which can cut through the electronic signal clutter, provide leap-forward performance that is mission critical as services rely on electronic sensors in highly congested environments. The new developments could be integrated into electronic warfare, communications, precision munitions, and Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) platforms.

«T-MUSIC will incorporate analog and digital signals on a single chip for high-performance data converters and digital processing and intelligence», said Chris Rappa, product line director for Radio Frequency, Electronic Warfare, and Advanced Electronics at BAE Systems’ FAST Labs. «The advanced electronics we are developing under the T-MUSIC program could create the foundation for greatly enhanced Department of Defense capabilities in advanced RF sensors and high capacity communications».

As part of the $8 million contract, BAE Systems FAST Labs research and development team – working closely with program foundries – will design and develop wafer-scale technology on a silicon foundry platform that can enable U.S.-based production of next-generation DoD electronics.

The T-MUSIC contract adds to BAE Systems’ advanced electronics portfolio and is based on many years of investment on various programs with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), U.S. Army, and DARPA, including DARPA’s CONverged Collaborative Elements for RF Task Operations (CONCERTO) and DARPA’s Radio Frequency Field Programmable Gate Arrays (RF-FPGA) programs. Work for the contract will be completed at the company’s facilities in Merrimack, New Hampshire; Lexington, Massachusetts; and Manassas, Virginia.

Solid State Radar

The world’s latest generation solid-state radar technology, formerly known as Lockheed Martin’s Solid State Radar (LM SSR), has been designated as AN/SPY-7(V)1 by the United States government. The designation of AN/SPY-7(V)1 is a direct reflection of the maturity and capability of Lockheed Martin’s solid-state radar technology.

Lockheed Martin’s Solid State Radar has been designated as AN/SPY-7(V)1 by the United States government. SPY-7 and Aegis Ashore will defend against ballistic missile threats and provide continuous protection of Japan

The Japanese Ministry of Defense selected AN/SPY-7(V)1 for two planned Aegis Ashore installations in 2018. Additionally, variants of AN/SPY-7(V)1 will be used by the Royal Canadian Navy for the Canadian Surface Combatant program and the Spanish Navy for the upcoming F-110 frigate program.

«Lockheed Martin’s solid state solution meets the mission now and is flexible to adapt to the evolving threats of the future», said Paul Lemmo, vice president and general manager at Lockheed Martin. «This new designation solidifies our ability to provide the most technically advanced capabilities our warfighters require».

AN/SPY-7(V)1 is a modular and scalable solid state radar, allowing for continuous surveillance and protection. It will be fully integrated with the Aegis Combat System, providing advanced technology for future ship classes.

With 50 years of constant evolution and innovation, Lockheed Martin has a trusted history of producing, integrating and delivering radars and combat systems. Lockheed Martin and the Aegis Combat System continue to keep pace with evolving integrated air and missile threats, introducing new capabilities to create the latest generation of advanced solid state technologies, integrated with the Aegis system, to provide world-class defense and ensure future safety and security.