Category Archives: Navy

Keel for Indiana

The keel of the 16th Virginia-class attack submarine, named after the 16th largest state, was laid May 16 at Newport News Shipyard. She is the third ship to bear the name Indiana, and will be the first in almost 70 years to sail under the national colors with that name. It is said in the Navy Times that the ship’s sponsor, Diane Donald, the wife of retired Admiral Kirk Donald, a former director of Naval Nuclear Propulsion, declared the keel «to be truly and fairly laid». Diane Donald authenticated the keel with her initials, which were welded onto a metal plate and permanently affixed to the ship.

Heather Johnson, a 37-year-old mother of four, has the honor of being the first female welder at Newport News Shipbuilding to weld the sponsor's initials on a Virginia-class submarine (Photo by John Whalen/HII)
Heather Johnson, a 37-year-old mother of four, has the honor of being the first female welder at Newport News Shipbuilding to weld the sponsor’s initials on a Virginia-class submarine (Photo by John Whalen/HII)

Construction on Indiana, the sixth of eight Block III variants, started in September 2012. The state is known as «the crossroads of America», and its namesake honors that motto well. She carries millions of parts from 5,000 suppliers located in all 50 states. Assembling these parts is what Jim Hughes, vice president for Submarines and Fleet Support, called «one of the biggest orchestras in the world». The symphony carefully played by 4,000 shipbuilders will now unite hull sections into a 377-foot/114.8 m military masterpiece that will crescendo with its 2017 commissioning, then slip into three decades of silent service.

Her missions will be many and multifaceted. The Virginia class has a large lock-in/lock-out chamber, and a reconfigurable torpedo room to accommodate more snake eaters. She will carry roughly three dozen Tomahawk cruise missiles. Traditional periscopes have been replaced by photonics masts with high-resolution cameras and infrared sensors. A fly-by-wire ship control system provides unmatched operation in shallow littoral areas.

A shipbuilder on a lift works on the stern unit of Indiana (SSN-789) at Newport News Shipbuilding in 2013 (Photo by Ricky Thompson/HII)
A shipbuilder on a lift works on the stern unit of Indiana (SSN-789) at Newport News Shipbuilding in 2013 (Photo by Ricky Thompson/HII)

While the Virginia class boasts these and other upgrades in weaponry and other tactical equipment, its biggest edge is in acoustics, said Commander Jesse Zimbauer, the ship’s skipper. Among its many advances, the Block III variant vastly improved passive detection by replacing the traditional sonar sphere with the Large Aperture Bow array. «We are building the future with this submarine», said Jesse Zimbauer, who «jumped on the opportunity» to be part of the pre-commissioning unit.

A keel laying is the symbolic beginning of building a ship, originating from the large structural beam, or keel, that serves as the foundation or spine of the ship’s hull. Although modular construction techniques mean that the ship is no longer built from the bottom up, the keel laying is still celebrated as a momentous event in the ship’s construction. During the keel laying ceremony, the ship’s sponsor authenticates the keel by chalking her initials onto a metal plate. The initials are then welded onto a plate that is permanently affixed to the ship.

Diane Donald, the Indiana's sponsor, looks over her initials on a steel plate held by welder Heather Johnson of Newport News Shipbuilding
Diane Donald, the Indiana’s sponsor, looks over her initials on a steel plate held by welder Heather Johnson of Newport News Shipbuilding

 

INDIANA (SSN-789) FACTS

  • Navy names SSN-789 in honor of the state of Indiana: April 13, 2012
  • Construction start: September 2012
  • Keel Authentication Ceremony: May 16, 2015
  • Ship’s sponsor: Ms. Diane Donald, wife of retired Admiral Kirk Donald
  • Number of NNS shipbuilders who support Indiana construction: 4,000
  • Officers and Crew: Currently, 57; At delivery 135; Commanded by Jesse Zimbauer
  • Indiana is about 48 percent complete and is on track to complete in summer 2017
  • Indiana is the 16th ship of the Virginia class
A unit for the Virginia-class submarine South Dakota (SSN-790) under construction at Newport News Shipbuilding in 2014 (Photo by Chris Oxley)
A unit for the Virginia-class submarine South Dakota (SSN-790) under construction at Newport News Shipbuilding in 2014 (Photo by Chris Oxley)

 

General Characteristics

Builder General Dynamics Electric Boat Division and Huntington Ingalls Industries Inc. – Newport News Shipbuilding
Date Deployed October 3, 2004
Propulsion One S9G* nuclear reactor, one shaft
Length 377 feet/114.8 m
Beam 33 feet/10.0584 m
Hull Diameter 34 feet/10.5156 m
Displacement Approximately 7,800 tons/7,925 metric tons submerged
Speed 25+ knots/28+ mph/46.3+ km/h
Diving Depth 800+ feet/244+ m
Crew 132: 15 officers; 117 enlisted
Armament: Tomahawk missiles 12 individual VLS (Vertical Launch System) tubes or two 87-in/2.2 m Virginia Payload Tubes (VPTs), each capable of launching 6 Tomahawk cruise missiles
Armament: MK-48 ADCAP (Advanced Capability) Mod 7 heavyweight torpedoes 4 torpedo tubes
Weapons MK-60 CAPTOR (Encapsulated Torpedo) mines, advanced mobile mines and UUVs (Unmanned Underwater Vehicles)

* – Knolls Atomic Power Laboratories

A panorama of the shipyard shows the bow unit of Illinois (SSN-786) being moved to the sea shuttle (right) June 24, 2014. Illinois is being delivered to the Navy by General Dynamics Electric Boat (Photo by Chris Oxley/HII)
A panorama of the shipyard shows the bow unit of Illinois (SSN-786) being moved to the sea shuttle (right) June 24, 2014. Illinois is being delivered to the Navy by General Dynamics Electric Boat (Photo by Chris Oxley/HII)

Patriotic martyr

A patriotic martyr, Yu Gwan-sun, 1902-1920, who died in her youth while struggling against Japanese coercion, is revived as a most capable submarine. Daewoo Shipbuilding Engineering in Geoje-gun, Gyeongnam, had launching ceremony of the type 214, 6th submarine Yu Gwan Sun Ham on the afternoon of May 7th. The launching ceremony is a ritual of sending a warship, which is mounted with equipment and a weapons system, into the sea for the first time.

The diesel-powered submarine will be deployed on anti-vessel and anti-submarine missions
The diesel-powered submarine will be deployed on anti-vessel and anti-submarine missions

The Navy offered congratulations at the ceremony for the very first female-named submarine and invited female fighters for independence and relevant officials of Korean women’s independence movement organizations to meditate on martyr Yu’s spirit of independence. Defense Minister Han Min-koo was at the ceremony as the guest of honor. His grandfather was the commander of loyal troops, Cheongam Han Bong-soo.

According to the traditional process of the Navy, the launching ceremony was preceded by the Pledge of Allegiance, shipbuilding progress report, the announcement of the name of submarine, ribbon-cutting and champaign breaking.

Navy Chief of Staff Jung Ho-seob named the submarine «Yu Gwan Sun» and assigned «78» as the number of body through a letter of naming No. 462. As Mrs. Kwak Jung-im, Minister Han’s wife, cut the launching ribbon with an axe, colorful confetti and balloons flew through the sky and the first historical whistle blew.

«With its unique invisibility and survivability, Yu Gwan Sun Ham is a national core strategic weapon as well as a symbol of a strong Navy for obtaining maritime control. The Navy should develop the fighting power of the submarine to protect the national interest and the ocean sovereignty as a rock, and have an elevated readiness posture», Minister Han said in a congratulatory speech.

He also made a request for the sailors to be an example of an elite advanced Navy, fighting with self-esteem and pride to protect our territorial waters and seaway, saying that history has proved that strong security is the base of our national existence as well as the foundation for peace of the Korean Peninsula. «I’m very excited to be here at the launching ceremony for Yu Gwan Sun Ham, the first female-named submarine. I hope the Navy befits the name of patriotic martyr Yu to be the strongest Navy in the world», said Mrs. Oh Hee-ok.

The submarine is being built by Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering and it will be delivered in November of next year
The submarine is being built by Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering and it will be delivered in November of next year

The Navy named the type 214, the 6th submarine, the Yu Gwan Sun for the meaningful year of the 70th anniversary of independence, 70th anniversary of the foundation of the Korean Navy, and 95th anniversary of the death of Yu Gwan-sun. It is the first female-named warship in Navy history. There are some other cases of Aegis destroyer and helicopter carrier in the U.S., the UK and France. The Navy has named the type 214 submarines for great men who contributed to the independence movement against Japan or overcoming a national crisis.

Martyr Yu Gwan-sun participated in the Independence Movement in front of the South Gate of Seoul on March 5, 1919, while in Ihwa School. And she was arrested for leading the movement at Aunae marketplace in Galjeon-myeon, Chungnam, on April 1. She died at Seodaemun prison in 1920 due to brutal torture. The government posthumously honored on her with the Order of Merit for National Foundation, Independent Medal, in 1962, admiring her merits.

Yu Gwan Sun Ham, a submarine in the 1,800-ton class with submerged displacement, is 65.3 m/214.2 feet in length, 6.3 m/20.7 feet in width and has a top speed of 20 knots/23 mph/37 km/h. It can make a round trip to Hawaii in the U.S. with around 40 sailors on board without refueling.

With Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) that is able to charge a storage battery without air, it is available for operations for two weeks without floating to the surface of the water.

And thanks to «Haeseong», a domestic submarine-to-ground cruise missile, it can precisely strike the enemy’s main facilities and deal with 300 targets at the same time from under the water. It is capable of not only antiship, antiaircraft and antisubmarine warfare, but it can carry out a mission for offensive mining.

It is the first female-named warship in the Korean Navy history
It is the first female-named warship in the Korean Navy history

It is evaluated as a world-class diesel submarine equipped with detection sensors, such as sailing radar, periscope, sonar, etc., and a decoy system that avoids enemy torpedoes.

The type 214 design is characterised by the following features:

  • increased underwater endurance and low detection risk using the proven Fuel Cell system for air-independent propulsion;
  • increased diving depth;
  • low revolution, permanently excited PERMASYN motor for maximum speed without transient switching noises;
  • optimised signature management;
  • sonar development within the ISUS 90 for increased low-frequency detection ranges (flank array);
  • large weapon payload for a mix of torpedoes, missiles and mines (8 weapon tubes);
  • integration of Torpedo Countermeasures (TCM) system.

It will be delivered to the Navy in November 2016 and protect the Korean territorial waters after its commission and force integration process.

 

Korean Navy names its latest submarine after female independence fighter

 

Turkish LPD

On 7th May, during IDEF 2015, the Defence exhibition in Istanbul, the Turkish shipyard SEDEF has signed a contract with the SSM for the design and construction of one Landing Platform Dock (LPD, also called Amphibious Transport Dock) ship for the Turkish Navy. Navantia participates in this contract as a technological partner.

This ship is the biggest warship ever built in Spain and is named after H.R.M. King Juan Carlos I
This ship is the biggest warship ever built in Spain and is named after H.R.M. King Juan Carlos I

Navantia will provide the design, transfer of technology, equipments and technical assistance to SEDEF for local construction. The design, based on the Landing Helicopter Dock (LHD) Juan Carlos I for the Spanish Navy, is adapted to the Turkish Navy requirements, having the advantage of being a tested ship with excellent performance since commissioning. Navantia will also provide several components and systems, as the engines and the IPMS (Integrated Platform Management System).

The selection of the design was announced on 27th December 2013 and the commissioning of the ship is scheduled for 2021.

Navantia has also a contract for two similar ships in Australia, the HMAS Canberra (L02), already commissioned and the HMAS Adelaide (L01), to be commissioned in the last quarter of 2015. Last, this contract means the entrance of Navantia in the Turkish market, where has opened an office in 2013 and is also involved in the anti-air frigates program, as well as the consolidation of Navantia as a reference in the LHD market.

 

Juan Carlos I (L61)

The Juan Carlos I is a single hull ship made of steel with the superstructure on the starboard side. Her design is based on a combination of military and commercial standards and specifications; the structure, equipment and materials follow Lloyd’s Register of Shipping’s civil standards, whilst her combat system, ordnance handling and stowage systems, systems of supply at sea, flight deck and the damage control system follow military standards.

Garage for heavy loads, with 1,410 square meters and a capacity to house 29 Leopard or similar battle tanks, AAV amphibious vehicles and practically any type of caterpillar track vehicle, as well as 16 tonne TEU cargo containers.  Its length is 90 metres, with a width of 16 metres
Garage for heavy loads, with 1,410 square meters and a capacity to house 29 Leopard or similar battle tanks, AAV amphibious vehicles and practically any type of caterpillar track vehicle, as well as 16 tonne TEU cargo containers. Its length is 90 metres, with a width of 16 metres

 

Characteristics

Length overall 231 m/758 feet
Maximum beam 32 m/105 feet
Draught at full load 7.1 m/23.3 feet
Height 58 m/190 feet
Flight deck height over water level 20 m/65.6 feet
Maximum displacement 26,000 tonnes
Maximum displacement in Amphibious Operation 30,000 tonnes
Maximum speed 21 knots/24 mph/39 km/h
Range at 15 knots/17 mph/28 km/h 9,000 NM/10,357 miles/16,668 km
Capacity 1,435 personnel
Crew 254
Embarked or transport forces 883
Chiefs of Staff 103
Embarked Air Wing Unit 172
Naval Beach Group 23

 

Christening of Brunswick

The Navy christened the future joint high-speed vessel USNS Brunswick (JHSV-6) on May 9, 2015, during a 10 a.m. CDT ceremony in Mobile, Alabama. Secretary of the U.S. Navy Ray Mabus delivered the ceremony’s principal address. Alma B. «Lee» Booterbaugh served as the ship’s sponsor.

More than 300 naval guests, civic leaders, community members and Austal employees attended Saturday's ceremony, which was held beneath the hull of the Brunswick at Austal's shipyard
More than 300 naval guests, civic leaders, community members and Austal employees attended Saturday’s ceremony, which was held beneath the hull of the Brunswick at Austal’s shipyard

«We are celebrating the christening of the future USNS Brunswick – a modern marvel – just like the incredible shipyard that built it», said Mabus. «More than 4,000 American craftsmen have made this ship possible and the partnership they have with our uniformed men and women, our Navy civilians, the shipbuilding industry as a whole, and the American people, is one of the great strengths of our system. Throughout its life, as it serves around the world, this ship will represent the American spirit of hard work and patriotism the people of Brunswick exude».

Named for a seaport city located on the southeast coast of Georgia, Brunswick is the fourth ship to bear the name. The first was a lightship that served in the U.S. Navy during World War I. The second Brunswick was a patrol frigate that escorted convoys across the Atlantic during World War II. The third ship to bear the name was a salvage and rescue tug that served the U.S. Navy from 1972 to 1996.

Three JHSVs and seven Littoral Combat Ships (LCS) are currently under construction in Austal’s Mobile, Alabama shipyard. The company is scheduled to launch JHSV-6 before the end of the month, while the future USS Jackson (LCS-6) prepares for its acceptance sea trials later this summer
Three JHSVs and seven Littoral Combat Ships (LCS) are currently under construction in Austal’s Mobile, Alabama shipyard. The company is scheduled to launch JHSV-6 before the end of the month, while the future USS Jackson (LCS-6) prepares for its acceptance sea trials later this summer

The 103 m/338 foot-long aluminum catamaran is under construction at the Austal USA shipyard in Mobile, Alabama. Joint High Speed Vessels (JHSVs) are ideal for fast, intra-theater transportation of troops, military vehicles, supplies and equipment. These ships are capable of transporting 600 short tons 1,200 nautical miles/2,222 km at an average speed of 35 knots/40 mph/65 km/h with berthing space for up to 104 personnel and airline-style seating for up to 312.

JHSVs have a 20,000 square foot/1,863 m2 open mission deck and a flight deck to support day and night launch and recovery operations, providing U.S. forces added mobility and flexibility. They can operate in a variety of roles to include supporting overseas contingency operations, conducting humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, supporting special operations forces and supporting emerging joint sea-basing concepts.

Upon delivery to the U.S. Navy’s Military Sealift Command (MSC), Brunswick (JHSV-6) will be designated as a United States Naval Ship (USNS), and will have a core crew of 22 civilian mariners with military mission personnel embarking as necessary.

Provide rapid transport of military equipment and personnel in theater
Provide rapid transport of military equipment and personnel in theater

 

Specifications

Principal dimensions

Material:                                    Hull and superstructure – aluminium alloy

Length overall:                       103 m/337.9 feet

Beam overall:                          28.5 m/93.5 feet

Hull draft (maximum):        3.83 m/12.57 feet

Mission bay

Area (with tie-downs):       1,863 m2/20,053 feet2

Clear Height:                            4.75 m/15.6 feet

Turning diameter:                 26.2 m/86.0 feet

ISO TEU Stations:                  6 Interface Panels

Accommodations

Crew:                                            41

Single SR:                             2

Double SR:                          6

Quad SR:                              7

Troop Seats:                          312

Troop Berths

Permanent:                 104

Temporary:                   46

Galley and Messing:          48

The JHSV program is procuring 10 high-speed transport vessels for the US Army and the US Navy
The JHSV program is procuring 10 high-speed transport vessels for the US Army and the US Navy

Propulsion

Main Engines:    4 × MTU 20V8000 M71L Diesel Engines 4 × 9.1 MW

Gear boxes:         4 × ZF 60000NR2H Reduction Gears

Waterjets:            4 × Wartsila WLD 1400 SR

Performance

Speed

Average:                     35 knots/40 mph/65 km/h @ 90% MCR with 635 mt (700 st) payload

Maximum:                 43 knots/50 mph/80 km/h without payload

Range

Maximum Transit:      1,200 NM/2,222 km

Self-Deployment:        5,600 NM/10,371 km

Survival Through:                 SS-7

Aviation facilities

NAVAIR Level 1 Class 2 Certified Flight Deck for one helicopter

Centreline parking area for one helicopter

NAVAIR Level 1 class 4 Type 2 Certified VERTREP

Helicopter Control Station

Auxiliary systems

Active Ride Control

Transcom Interceptors

Foils: 3.24 m2/34.9 feet2 each, forward on inboard sides of demi-hulls

Vehicle Ramp

Articulated Slewing Stern Ramp

Straight aft to 45 Starboard

Telescoping Boom Crane

12.3 mt @ 15 m, 18.2 mt @ 10 m/13.6 Lt @ 49.2 feet, 20.1 Lt @ 32.8 feet

The JHSV includes a flight deck for helicopter operations and an off-load ramp that allows vehicles to quickly drive off the ship
The JHSV includes a flight deck for helicopter operations and an off-load ramp that allows vehicles to quickly drive off the ship

 

Ships

USNS Spearhead (JHSV-1), Delivered

USNS Choctaw County (JHSV-2), Delivered

USNS Millinocket (JHSV-3), Delivered

USNS Fall River (JHSV-4), Delivered

USNS Trenton (JHSV-5), Delivered

Brunswick (JHSV-6), under construction

Carson City (JHSV-7), under construction

Yuma (JHSV-8), under construction

Bismark (JHSV-9), under construction

Burlington (JHSV-10), under construction

The ships can operate in shallow-draft ports and waterways, interface with roll-on/roll-off discharge facilities, and on/off-load a combat-loaded Abrams Main Battle Tank (M1A2)
The ships can operate in shallow-draft ports and waterways, interface with roll-on/roll-off discharge facilities, and on/off-load a combat-loaded Abrams Main Battle Tank (M1A2)

 

 

 

Italian Navy’s fleet

Fincantieri, one of the world’s largest shipbuilding groups and reference player in the naval shipbuilding industry, and Finmeccanica, Italy’s leading manufacturer in the high technology sector, will build and equip the units set out in the renewal plan of the Italian Navy’s fleet.

Artist’s impression of a Pattugliatore Polivalente d’Altura, a hybrid design combining the attributes of an Offshore Patrol Vessel (OPV) with those of a multipurpose frigate into the same vessel. (Fincantieri image)
Artist’s impression of a Pattugliatore Polivalente d’Altura, a hybrid design combining the attributes of an Offshore Patrol Vessel (OPV) with those of a multipurpose frigate into the same vessel. (Fincantieri image)

In the framework of this plan, OCCAR (Organisation Conjointe de Cooperation sur l’Armement, the international organization for cooperation on arms) has signed the order of the contractual performance for the construction of six patrol vessels (PPA, or Multipurpose Offshore Patrol Ship), with four more in option, and for one logistic support unit (LSS or Logistic Support Ship) with the consortium (Raggruppamento Temporaneo di Impresa – RTI) consisting of Fincantieri, agent, and Finmeccanica, through its subsidiary Selex ES, principal.

The value of the contracts for the seven units is approximately 3.5 billion euros (US $4 billion), of which Fincantieri’s share amounts to approx. 2.3 billion euros (US $2.6 billion) and the one of Finmeccanica to about 1.2 billion euros (US $1.4 billion).

The contracts provide different activation phases. Today OCCAR has started Phase 1 for the construction of the first PPA and the logistic support unit for a total value of 372 million euros (US $419 million), of which Fincantieri’s share amounts to 220 million euros (US $248 million) and Finmeccanica’s one to 152 million euros (US $171 million). The activation of the next phases concerning the other units is expected to take place in the upcoming months.

The delivery of the logistic support unit is scheduled for 2019, while the first patrol vessel is expected to be delivered in 2021. The delivery of the following patrol vessels is planned for 2022, 2023, 2024 (two units) and 2025.

In general, this multi-year program for the renewal of the Navy’s fleet (known as the «Defence Act») will employ a total funding of 5.4 billion euros (US $6 billion) and foresees the construction, in addition to the aforementioned units, of one transport and landing unit (LHD) through a public contract with the Italian Ministry of Defence currently being finalized. In particular:

  • 1 logistic support unit (LSS or Logistic Support Ship);
  • 6 patrol vessels (PPA, or Multipurpose Offshore Patrol Ship) and 4 more in option;
  • 1 transport and landing unit (LHD or Landing Helicopter Dock).

The fundamental characteristic common to all three classes of ships is their high level of innovation providing them with a considerable degree of efficiency and flexibility in serving different mission profiles. In particular, these are dual use vessels, meaning that they may be used for both standard military purposes and for civil protection and rescue at sea operations, and they also have a low environmental impact thanks to a state-of-the-art auxiliary propulsion system generating a low level of pollution emissions (electric engines) and biological waste control system.

The consortium (RTI) was established according to the cooperation agreement in the field of naval vessels construction signed last October between Fincantieri and Finmeccanica. Pursuant to the agreement, Fincantieri acts as a sole interface to the client, while allowing to enhance Finmeccanica’s products range in the naval field.

In addition to building the vessels at its shipyards, Fincantieri will provide support over the lifecycle of the vessels in the first ten years, through the supply of logistic services (training courses, spare parts, technical documentation) during the construction of the vessels and of ISS or In Service Support (maintenance services), carried out during post-delivery operations, as well as components and naval machinery produced by the Marine Systems and Components Unit, such as shaft lines, wheelhouse, maneuvering propellers, fin stabilizers and other handling systems, the automation system and a part of the special supplies for PPAs delivered by the subsidiary Seastema S.p.A.

Finmeccanica, through Selex ES, will act as prime contractor for all of the new naval units’ combat systems. Selex ES will provide sensors, such as the new multi-functional radar, and will also take on responsibility for all subsystems, included those provided by OTO Melara, WASS, MBDA and Elettronica.

In addition, Selex ES and Fincantieri will develop together the innovative «Cockpit» system. This system will, for the first time ever, allow for the integrated management of sailing and combat system operations, using augmented reality to allow both functions to be effectively managed with fewer operators.

 

Vessel’s characteristics

 

LSS – Logistic Support Ship

The LSS is a vessel that provides logistics support to the fleet, endowed with hospital and healthcare capabilities thanks to the presence of a fully equipped hospital, complete with operating rooms, radiology and analysis rooms, a dentist’s office and hospital rooms capable of hosting up to 12 seriously injured patients. The ship is capable of combining capacity to transport and transfer to other transport vessels used for liquids (diesel fuel, jet fuel, fresh water) and solids (emergency spare parts, food and ammunitions) and to perform at sea repairs and maintenance work for other vessels.

Fincantieri's Logistic Support Ship (LSS) concept (Photo: Christopher P. Cavas/staff)
Fincantieri’s Logistic Support Ship (LSS) concept (Photo: Christopher P. Cavas/staff)

The defense systems are limited to the capacity of command and control in tactical scenarios, communications and dissuasive, non-lethal defense systems. The vessel is also capable of embarking more complex defence systems and becoming an intelligence and electronic war platform.

  • 165 meters/541 feet long;
  • Speed of 20 knots/23 mph/37 km/h;
  • 200 persons including crew and specialists;
  • 4 replenishment station abeam and 1 astern;
  • Capacity to supply drinking water to land;
  • Capacity to provide electricity to land with 2,500 kW of power;
  • Possibility of embarking up to 8 residential and healthcare modules;
  • Capacity to perform rescues at sea, through recovery and seabed operations (the ship is equipped with an 30 tons offshore stabilized crane stabilized);
  • Base for rescue operations through helicopters and special vessels.

Delivery is scheduled in 2019.

 

PPA – Multipurpose Offshore Patrol Ship

The Multipurpose Offshore Patrol Ship is a highly flexible ship with capacity to serve multiple functions ranging from patrol with sea rescue capacity to Civil Protection operations, and in its most highly equipped version, first line fighting vessel.

Fincantieri's PPA multipurpose offshore patrol ship features a large gun, surface-to-surface missiles, and a large helicopter hangar (Photo: Christopher P. Cavas/staff)
Fincantieri’s PPA multipurpose offshore patrol ship features a large gun, surface-to-surface missiles, and a large helicopter hangar (Photo: Christopher P. Cavas/staff)

There will be indeed different configurations of combat system: a «soft» one for the patrol task integrated for self-defence ability, and a «full» one, equipped for a complete defence ability. The vessel is also capable of operating high-speed vessels such as RHIB (Rigid Hull Inflatable Boat) up to 11 meters/36 feet long through lateral cranes or a hauling ramp located at the far stern.

  • 129 meters/423 feet long;
  • Speed of over 31 knots/36 mph/57 km/h;
  • 171 persons of the crew;
  • Equipped with a combined diesel and gas turbine plant (CODAG);
  • Capacity to supply drinking water to land;
  • Capacity to provide electricity to land with 2,000 kW of power;
  • Possibility of embarking modular residential and healthcare zones;
  • 2 modular zones at the stern and at the center of the ship that allow the embarking of various types of containerized operating/logistic/healthcare modules. In particular, the stern area may receive and handle within a covered area up to 5 modules in ISO 20” containers, while the central zone may receive and handle up to 8 ISO 20” containers.

The PPAs will be built at the Integrated Shipyard of Riva Trigoso and Muggiano, with delivery expected, for the first vessel of the class, in 2021, while the following deliveries of the vessels will take place in 2022, 2023, 2024 (two units), and 2025.

 

Damen’s new OPV

On 20 April 2015, Damen Shipyards Group gave a sneak preview of their newly designed 2nd generation Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) during the annual OPVs & Corvettes Asia Pacific conference in Singapore. Damen’s Design & Proposal Manager Piet van Rooij explained how this new OPV has been configured for various missions.

The development of the «Axe Bow Concept» followed, a hull shape with unparalleled seakeeping characteristics: the maximum acceleration ever measured on the bow of an existing Axe-Bow is 1.3 G. Based on this concept, Damen has developed the «Sea Axe» Patrol Boats and Fast Crew Suppliers. Damen has delivered over 150 Axe-Bows since 2006
The development of the «Axe Bow Concept» followed, a hull shape with unparalleled seakeeping characteristics: the maximum acceleration ever measured on the bow of an existing Axe-Bow is 1.3 G. Based on this concept, Damen has developed the «Sea Axe» Patrol Boats and Fast Crew Suppliers. Damen has delivered over 150 Axe-Bows since 2006

This new generation of re-configurable Damen OPVs is highly efficient and incredibly versatile. Damen’s famous Sea Axe hull shape is used for these 2nd generation OPVs. Due to this hull design, these vessels demonstrate superior seakeeping including exceptional low heave accelerations. This makes the vessel very comfortable, even in stormy sea states.

Since the hull is designed to reduce water resistance, the new OPV is also very fuel efficient and capable of speeds up to 25/26 knots/29/30 mph/46/48 km/h.

Versatility has been reinvented by three newly developed multi-mission locations – namely the Bridge, Hangar and Bay. The Multi-Mission Bay (MM Bay) can be equipped with dedicated mission modules (e.g. mission containers) for missions such as counter piracy, counter-drug operations, Anti-Mining Warfare (AMW), Search-And-Rescue (SAR) etc.

The MM Bay is also equipped with a nine-meter Rigid-Hulled Inflatable Boat (RHIB), which can be launched over a dedicated slipway through the rear of the vessel while the OPV is sailing. In the Damen-built Holland Class Ocean Patrol vessels for the Royal Netherlands Navy this system has already proven to be safe in operations up to SS 5 conditions.

Mission modules (dedicated containers) can be lifted into the Multi-Mission Bay, through the helicopter deck
Mission modules (dedicated containers) can be lifted into the Multi-Mission Bay, through the helicopter deck

Unlike other OPVs, the Command-and-Control Centre (C2 Centre) is located directly behind the bridge. Damen calls this development their Multi-Mission Bridge (MM Bridge). Both spaces can be separated by means of a blinded sliding wall. OPVs are less likely to take part in combat situations such as those faced by a frigate.

During a mission, when lowering the sliding wall, situation awareness in the C2 Centre is improved, allowing C2 Centre officers to observe the situation immediately with their own eyes.

Mr. Van Rooij comments: «Today OPVs don’t engage in combat situations as often as frigates do, however, fast and effective coordination during a ‘chase’ is essential for an OPV».

The Multi-Mission Hangar (MM Hangar) is capable of storing an 11-tonne NH-90 helicopter and an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) such as the Boeing ScanEagle. The MM Hangar has been designed so that the OPV crew can deploy either the helicopter or the UAV without having to move either one. Furthermore, there is space for a spare parts store and workshop for both the helicopter and UAV.

The Damen OPV 2nd generation is available as a standard in four series:

  • 75 meter/246 feet – 1,400 tonnes;
  • 85 meter/279 feet – 1,800 tonnes;
  • 95 meter/312 feet – 2,400 tonnes;
  • 103 meter/338 feet – 2,600 tonnes.
Depending on the mission and the situation, the C&C Centre can be separated from the Bridge by means of a blinded sliding door
Depending on the mission and the situation, the C&C Centre can be separated from the Bridge by means of a blinded sliding door

 

MAIN CHARACTERISTICS

Series OPV 1400 OPV 1800 OPV 2400 OPV 2600
Displacement 1,400 tonnes 1,800 tonnes 2,400 tonnes 2,600 tonnes
Length o.a. 75 m/246 feet 85 m/279 feet 95 m/312 feet 103 m/338 feet
Beam moulded 12.7 m/ 41.7 feet 13.7 m/45 feet 14.4 m/47 feet 14.4 m/47 feet
Draft 3.8 m/12.5 feet 4 m/13 feet 4 m/13 feet 4 m/13 feet
Speed maximum (MSR) 23 knots/ 26 mph/42 km/h 25 knots/ 29 mph/46 km/h 26 knots/ 30 mph/48 km/h 26 knots/ 30 mph/48 km/h
Range 4,000 NM/ 7,408 km 5,000 NM/ 9,260 km 6,000 NM/ 11,112 km 7,000 NM/ 12,964 km
Endurance 25 days 30 days 40 days 40 days
Helicopter & UAV hangar telescopic telescopic telescopic telescopic
Helicopter flight deck & refueling standard standard standard standard
Helicopter hangar area, L×B 19.2×6 m/ 63×19.7 feet 19.2×6 m/ 63×19.7 feet 19.2×6 m/ 63×19.7 feet 19.2×6 m/ 63×19.7 feet
Helicopter flight deck area, L×B 25×12.7 m/ 82×41.7 feet 25×13.7 m/ 82×45 feet 25×14.4 m/ 82×47 feet 25×14.4 m/ 82×47 feet
Take-off weight maximum 6 tonnes 11 tonnes 11 tonnes 11 tonnes
Multi-Mission Bridge standard standard standard standard
Multi-Mission Bay standard standard standard standard
Mission Module Containers 2 3 3 5
Number of RHIBs 2 2 2
Length of RHIBs 9 m 9 m 9 m 9 m
Core Complement capacity 40 60 60 60
Additional in Multi-role compartment 12 36 48 48
Multi-role compartment area 130 m2/ 1,399.3 feet2 190 m2/ 2,045.1 feet2 220 m2/ 2,368 feet2 320 m2/ 3,444.4 feet2
A small slipway makes ultrafast RHIB deployment possible, while sailing
A small slipway makes ultrafast RHIB deployment possible, while sailing

Accompany or escort?

It is said in The DefenseNews that U.S. Navy ships in the Persian Gulf are accompanying U.S.-flagged merchant vessels through the Strait of Hormuz after Iran’s recent seizure of one cargo ship and its harassment of another in international waters. A dozen ships are operating in the area and capable of providing support, the official said on May 1. U.S. warships frequently transit the strait, but it is more unusual for the U.S. to routinely convoy U.S.-flagged merchants through.

The aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) and the guided-missile cruiser USS Normandy (CG-60) operate in the Arabian Sea conducting maritime security operations. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Anthony N. Hilkowski/Released)
The aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) and the guided-missile cruiser USS Normandy (CG-60) operate in the Arabian Sea conducting maritime security operations. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Anthony N. Hilkowski/Released)

The warships include ships with the Theodore Roosevelt carrier strike group, which entered 5th Fleet three weeks ago and spent several days in the waters off Yemen, a show of force that compelled Iranian ships to turn around. The ships at NAVCENT’s disposal include:

  • The aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71);
  • The cruiser USS Normandy (CG-60);
  • The destroyers USS Paul Hamilton (DDG-60), USS Milius (DDG-69), USS Winston S. Churchill (DDG-81) and USS Farragut (DDG-99);
  • Coastal patrol ships USS Monsoon (PC-4), USS Typhoon (PC-5), USS Firebolt (PC-10), USS Whirlwind (PC-11) and USS Thunderbolt (PC-12);
  • The minesweeper USS Devastator (MCM-6).
More than 300 Sailors embarked aboard the guided-missile destroyer USS Farragut (DDG-99) depart homeport at Naval Station Mayport to support the Theodore Roosevelt Carrier Strike Group. While deployed, they will serve in the U.S. 5th and 6th  Fleet areas of responsibility conducting maritime security operations, theater security cooperation efforts and missions in support of Operation Enduring Freedom.  (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Sean P. La Marr/Released)
More than 300 Sailors embarked aboard the guided-missile destroyer USS Farragut (DDG-99) depart homeport at Naval Station Mayport to support the Theodore Roosevelt Carrier Strike Group. While deployed, they will serve in the U.S. 5th and 6th Fleet areas of responsibility conducting maritime security operations, theater security cooperation efforts and missions in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Sean P. La Marr/Released)

The move comes as tensions rise in the region, with news that Iranian navy ships harassed one U.S.-flagged shipping vessel in international waters and later boarded a Marshall Islands cargo ship, a country under U.S. protection. Only a week before, the Theodore Roosevelt and members of its strike group converged off the coast of Yemen, as rumors swirled that Iranian cargo ships were bringing in weapons to arm the Houthi rebels in their clash against Yemeni government.

The Defense Department is not communicating with Iran, and the country’s motives are, «not clear to the Department of Defense», Pentagon spokesman Army Colonel Steve Warren told reporters. «It’s difficult to know why the Iranians are operating this way», he said said. «We certainly call on them to respect all of the internationally established rules of freedom of navigation, the Law of the Sea, to which they are a signatory, and other established protocols».

The Cyclone-class coastal patrol ship USS Whirlwind (PC-11) transits the Arabian Gulf. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Kenneth Abbate/Released)
The Cyclone-class coastal patrol ship USS Whirlwind (PC-11) transits the Arabian Gulf. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Kenneth Abbate/Released)

On the other hand, according to Defense One, when Pentagon officials announced yesterday that they would increase protection for U.S.-flagged vessels in the Strait of Hormuz, they also introduced a bit of confusion. U.S. Navy sailors know what it means to escort another vessel. Generally speaking, a warship meets up with another ship, or even a group of them, and together they set out on a voyage, matching courses and speeds for most of the way. That is what happens when an aircraft carrier deploys with its battle group; that is what happened when U.S. warships shepherded tanker convoys through the war-wracked Persian Gulf of the late 1980s.

However, when Pentagon officials announced that the Navy would be increasing the protection given to U.S.-flagged ships passing through the Strait of Hormuz, they used a different word: «accompany». And it turns out they meant something a bit different from the far more commonly used «escort». A spokesman for the Navy’s Fifth Fleet, Cmdr. Kevin Stephens, explained, «U.S. naval forces will transit the strait along with and nearby such shipping, although it is not as though they’ll necessarily be in some sort of formation».

«Accompanying is basically a step down from escorting», the official said. «The U.S. Navy ships will be in the same general area as the U.S.-flagged merchant vessels and are there to ensure a safe flow of maritime traffic in the Strait of Hormuz».

The mine countermeasures ship USS Devastator (MCM-6) prepares to re-supply during the International Mine Countermeasures Exercise (IMCMEX). With a quarter of the world's navies participating including 6,500 Sailors from every region, IMCMEX is the largest international naval exercise promoting maritime security and the free-flow of trade through mine countermeasure operations, maritime security operations, and maritime infrastructure protection in the U.S. 5th Fleet area of responsibility and throughout the world. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Ace Rheaume/Released)
The mine countermeasures ship USS Devastator (MCM-6) prepares to re-supply during the International Mine Countermeasures Exercise (IMCMEX). With a quarter of the world’s navies participating including 6,500 Sailors from every region, IMCMEX is the largest international naval exercise promoting maritime security and the free-flow of trade through mine countermeasure operations, maritime security operations, and maritime infrastructure protection in the U.S. 5th Fleet area of responsibility and throughout the world. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Ace Rheaume/Released)

Christening of John

Huntington Ingalls Industries’ (HII) Ingalls Shipbuilding division christened the company’s 29th Arleigh Burke-class (DDG-51) Aegis guided missile destroyer, USS John Finn (DDG-113), today in front of nearly 1,000 guests.

Ship Sponsor Laura Stavridis smashes a bottle of sparkling wine across the bow of the Ingalls-built Aegis destroyer USS John Finn (DDG-113). Also pictured (left to right) are Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy Michael Stevens; Cmdr. Micheal Wagner, prospective commanding, John Finn; and Ingalls Shipbuilding President Brian Cuccias. Photo by Andrew Young/HII
Ship Sponsor Laura Stavridis smashes a bottle of sparkling wine across the bow of the Ingalls-built Aegis destroyer USS John Finn (DDG-113). Also pictured (left to right) are Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy Michael Stevens; Cmdr. Micheal Wagner, prospective commanding, John Finn; and Ingalls Shipbuilding President Brian Cuccias. Photo by Andrew Young/HII

DDG-113 is named John Finn after the first Medal of Honor recipient of World War II. Finn received the honor for machine-gunning Japanese warplanes for over two hours during the December 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor despite being shot in the foot and shoulder and suffering numerous shrapnel wounds. He retired as a lieutenant after 30 years of service and died at age 100 in 2010.

«I often speak to the members of the Chief Petty Officer Mess about the characteristics of a leader and, more specifically, the characteristics I expect to see in my chiefs», said Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy Michael Stevens, who was the principal speaker. «I tell them that a model chief petty officer is a quiet, humble and servant leader. I believe with all my heart that John Finn exemplified all of these traits through his heroic actions that day».

Laura Stavridis, wife of Admiral James Stavridis (U.S. Navy, Ret.) and DDG-113 ship sponsor, smashed a bottle of sparkling wine across the bow of the ship, officially christening DDG-113 as John Finn. «God bless this ship and all who sail on her», she said.

«Finn outlived 14 fellow sailors who earned the Medal of Honor for their service in World War II», said Mike Petters, HII’s president and CEO. «Unfortunately, he didn’t live long enough to know that a Navy ship would be named after him. I think he would be as humbled by this honor as he was with the title of hero bestowed upon him. Just remember his words: ‘There’s all kinds of heroes.’ And if you ask me, this ship was built for heroes by heroes. All in the name of freedom».

Ingalls Shipbuilding launched the Arleigh Burke-class Aegis guided missile destroyer John Finn (DDG-113) on Saturday morning (Photo by Andrew Young/HII)
Ingalls Shipbuilding launched the Arleigh Burke-class Aegis guided missile destroyer John Finn (DDG-113) on Saturday morning (Photo by Andrew Young/HII)

Ingalls has delivered 28 Arleigh Burke-class destroyers to the U.S. Navy. Destroyers currently under construction at Ingalls are USS John Finn (DDG-113), USS Ralph Johnson (DDG-114), USS Paul Ignatius (DDG-117) and USS Delbert D. Black (DDG-119). Earlier this year, Ingalls received a contract modification funding the construction of the company’s 33nd destroyer, DDG-121.

«Rest assured these shipbuilders – Ingalls shipbuilders – understand their noble calling», said Ingalls Shipbuilding President Brian Cuccias. «To build ships like John Finn safe, strong and proud for the sailors and Marines who sail in her, with strength pride and our deepest gratitude and respect».

«The future USS John Finn is the first destroyer built at Ingalls after the U.S. Navy restarted the program», Cuccias continued. «We hit the ground running with the new program, re-establishing the best destroyer team in the world with many best-in-class achievements, and this is already proven, as DDG-113 was launched three weeks ahead of schedule».

Arleigh Burke-class destroyers are highly capable, multi-mission ships that can conduct a variety of operations, from peacetime presence and crisis management to sea control and power projection, all in support of the United States’ military strategy. They are capable of simultaneously fighting air, surface and subsurface threats. The ship contains myriad offensive and defensive weapons designed to support maritime defense needs well into the 21st century.

«I have said it many times, and I mean it every time I say it … Gulf Coast shipbuilders build the greatest warships the world has ever seen», said Rep. Steven Palazzo, R-Miss. «Your craftsmanship is beyond compare, and I know that you all care very deeply about the work you do, because you know how important your work is to our national security and keeping America and our loved ones safe. No matter how many times I see these ships grow from steel plate into the great ship you see here today, I still believe it is an absolute modern marvel».

Finn received the honor for machine-gunning Japanese warplanes for over two hours during the December 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor
Finn received the honor for machine-gunning Japanese warplanes for over two hours during the December 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor

 

Ship Characteristics

Length Overall 510 feet/156 meters
Beam – Waterline 59 feet/18 meters
Draft 30.5 feet/9.3 meters
Displacement – Full Load 9,496 tons/9,648 metric tons
Power Plant 4 General electric LM 2500-30 gas turbines; 2 shafts; 2 CRP (Contra-Rotating) propellers; 100,000 shaft horsepower/ 75,000 kW
Speed in excess of 30 knots/34.5 mph/ 55.5 km/h
Range 4,400 NM/8.149 km at 20 knots/23 mph/37 km/h
Crew 380 total: 32 Officers, 27 CPO (Chief Petty Officer), 321 OEM
Surveillance SPY-1D Phased Array Radar and Aegis Combat System (Lockheed Martin); SPS-73(V) Navigation; SPS-67(V)3 Surface Search; 3 SPG-62 Illuminator; SQQ-89(V)6 sonar incorporating SQS-53C hull mounted and SQR-19 towed array sonars used with Mark-116 Mod 7 ASW fire control system
Electronics/Countermeasures SLQ-32(V)3; Mark-53 Mod 0 Decoy System; Mark-234 Decoy System; SLQ-25A Torpedo Decoy; SLQ-39 Surface Decoy; URN-25 TACAN; UPX-29 IFF System; Kollmorgen Mark-46 Mod 1 Electro-Optical Director
Aircraft 2 embarked SH-60 helicopters ASW operations; RAST (Recovery Assist, Secure and Traverse)
Armament 2 Mark-41 Vertical Launching System (VLS) with 90 Standard, Vertical Launch ASROC (Anti-Submarine Rocket) & Tomahawk ASM (Air-to-Surface Missile)/ LAM (Loitering Attack Missile); 5-in (127-mm)/54 Mark-45 gun; 2 CIWS (Close-In Weapon System); 2 Mark-32 triple 324-mm torpedo tubes for Mark-46 or Mark-50 ASW torpedos

 

Mrs. Laura Elizabeth Stavridis, Ship Sponsor, christens the guided missile destroyer USS John Finn (DDG-113)

Italian Carabiniere

The frigate Carabiniere (F593) was delivered on April 28, 2015 at the Muggiano (La Spezia) shipyard. It is the fourth vessel of the FREMM program – Multi Mission European Frigates – commissioned to Fincantieri within the international Italian-French program, coordinated by OCCAR (the Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation). Orizzonte Sistemi Navali (51% Fincantieri and 49% Finmeccanica) is the prime contractor for Italy in the FREMM program, which envisions the building of 10 units, all already ordered.

The ASW version was fitted with both towed and hull mounted sonars
The ASW version was fitted with both towed and hull mounted sonars

The ship has been named Carabiniere (F593) to celebrate in 2014, year of the launching, the 200th anniversary of the foundation of the Italian Carabinieri Force. Carabiniere (F593) is the fourth FREMM unit which Fincantieri builds and delivers to the Italian Navy completed with a combat system (the third with the ASW – Anti Submarine Warfare configuration), that is the ability of silent navigation speed in significant anti-submarine hunting.

144 meters long and a displacement at full load of approximately 6,700 tonnes, the FREMM frigates represent technological excellence: designed to reach a maximum speed of 27 knots/31 mph/50 km/h and to provide accommodation for 200 people (crew and staff), these vessels are able to always guarantee a high degree of flexibility and to operate in a wide range of scenarios and tactical situations.

The program faces the fleet renewal need of the Italian Navy’s units of the class frigates Lupo (disarment completed in 2003) and Maestrale (close in reaching its operational life limit). It is coordinated by OCCAR (l’Organisation Conjointe de Coopération en matière d’ARmement).

These units significantly contribute to the tasks assigned to the Italian Navy, being able to operate in various sectors: anti-aircraft, anti-submarine and anti-naval warfare, fire support from the sea as well as an organic helicopter component embarked. The FREMM units are set to become the backbone of the Italian Navy of the next decades.

D651 «Normandie» FREMM multi-mission frigate (front view)
D651 «Normandie» FREMM multi-mission frigate (front view)

 

Technical characteristics

Overall length 472 feet/144 m
Length between perpendiculars 423 feet/128.9 m
Breadth moulded 64.6 feet/19.7 m
Depth (main deck) 37 feet/11.3 m
Full load displacement at delivery (fld) abt. 6,700 tonnes
Growth margin 4%-abt. 230 tonnes
Crew + extra personnel 145 + 20
Maximum speed >27 knots/31 mph/50 km/h
Endurance 45 days
Range 6,000 NM/11,112 km at 15 knots/17 mph/28 km/h
CODLAG PROPULSION SYSTEM
Avio-GE LM2500 + G4 32 MW
Electric propulsion motors 2 × 2,5 MW
DG (Diesel Generator) sets 4 × 2,1 MW
CPP (Controllable Pitch Propellers) 2

 

Stealth frigates

It is said in The Press Trust of India that Defence PSU (Public Sector Undertakings) Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Ltd has bagged its biggest order of building three advanced stealth frigates for Rs 20,000 crore (approximately $3.14 billion) from the Indian Navy (IN).

The Project 17A is a follow-on of the Project 17 Shivalik-class frigate for the Indian Navy
The Project 17A is a follow-on of the Project 17 Shivalik-class frigate for the Indian Navy

«This is the highest-ever order which Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE) has got. This shows how much trust the government and the Navy has on us. It is a big shot in the arm for us», GRSE’s Chairman and Managing Director Rear Admiral A K Verma told reporters. Under the Project P-17A, Mazagon Dock Ltd (MDL), Mumbai, will make four stealth frigates while the Kolkata shipyard will make three such frigates, all of which will be of the same design.

«Frigates are one-man army which can attack under water, surface level and also at air. It can also carry helicopters and has detection abilities as well. It will become the most potent weapon of the Indian Navy», Verma said. Once the final design is ready, the construction at GRSE will begin after three years and the first ship will be ready by 2023. «The rest will come at one-year intervals and within ten years all the ships would be ready. We would be working in close collaboration with both the Indian Navy as well as MDL», the official said.

Commodore Ratnakar Ghosh, Director (shipbuilding), GRSE, also noted, they are building a new modernised integrated modular construction unit, which would be used for manufacturing the frigates. «It is because of the modular construction that we can bring down the time of construction to five years. Traditional shipbuilding method takes much more time», Commodore Ratnakar Ghosh said.

GRSE already has Goliath cranes and workshops with sliding roofs from where 200-tonne blocks can be lifted out. The ship will have a displacement of 6,000 tonnes.