Category Archives: Navy

Antipiracy frigate

It is said in the IHS Jane’s Navy International that state-owned shipbuilder PT PAL has held a keel-laying ceremony for the Indonesian Navy’s second SIGMA 10514 Perusak Kawal Rudal (PKR) guided-missile frigate. Defence minister Ryamizard Ryacudu, who presided over the ceremony at PT PAL’s premises in Surabaya, described the keel laying as a vote of confidence in the local shipbuilding industry’s capability to produce a complex warship like a PKR frigate.

SIGMA FRIGATE 10514
SIGMA FRIGATE 10514

PT PAL is building two PKR frigates in collaboration with Damen Schelde Naval Shipbuilding (DSNS, a Dutch shipyard) under a skills and technology transfer arrangement. For the second vessel, the Indonesian shipbuilder PT PAL is producing all of the modules except for the mast/bridge/operations block, which is to be completed by DSNS at its yard in Vlissingen, the Netherlands. For the first ship, PT PAL is responsible for the forward and stern hull modules and the mid and aft superstructure blocks. Both vessels will undergo final assembly and trials in Surabaya, the Indonesian Ministry of Defence (MoD) announced on 11 December 2014.

The Indonesian MoD signed a contract with DSNS for the first vessel in December 2012, while an option for the second ship was exercised in mid-2013. The frigates are scheduled for delivery in January 2017 and October 2017, respectively. Indonesia has planned to acquire at least two more ships in the class, although a contract for these has yet to be finalised.

Perusak Kawal Rudal guided-missile frigate
Perusak Kawal Rudal guided-missile frigate

The Indonesian MoD has said it will deploy the SIGMA PKR frigates for maritime surveillance, including to counter piracy and illegal fishing. The Tentera Nasional Indonesia – Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL) plans to equip the warships with AS565 Panther helicopters that will be fitted with the Helicopter Long-Range Active Sonar (HELRAS) dipping sonar and torpedo launching system, bolstering the frigates’ Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) capabilities.

According to Ridzwan Rahmat, Singapore IHS, the Indonesian frigates will be equipped with a variant of the Thales TACTICOS 300 combat management suite, a Rheinmetall Defence Millennium 35 mm Close-In Weapon System (CIWS), a Thales SMART-S Mark-2 surveillance radar, and a 12-cell vertical-launch air-defence system. The ships will also be equipped with six 324 mm torpedo tubes.

PKR frigate
PKR frigate

 

SIGMA FRIGATE 10514

(Perusak Kawal Rudal guided-missile frigate)

GENERAL

Customer:                                            Indonesian Navy

Basic functions:                                 Naval Patrol EEZ, deterrence, Search and Rescue, ASW (Anti-Submarine Warfare), AAW (Anti-Aircraft Warfare), ASUW (Anti-Surface Warfare), EW (Electronic Warfare)

Hull material:                                      Steel grade A/AH36

Standards:                                            Naval/Commercial, naval intact/damaged stability, noise reduced, moderate shock

Classification:                                    Lloyd’s Register of Shipping

 

DIMENSIONS

Length o.a.:                                          105.11 m

Beam mld:                                            14.02 m

Depth no.1 deck:                              8.75 m

Draught (dwl):                                    3.7 m

Displacement (dwl):                        2365 tonnes

SIGMA 10514 PKR guided-missile frigate
SIGMA 10514 PKR guided-missile frigate

 

PERFORMANCE

Speed (Maximum power):           28 knots (52 km/h)

Range at 14 knots (26 km/h):    5000 NM (9260 km)

Endurance:                                           20 days at sea

 

PROPULSION SYSTEM

Propulsion type:                              CODOE (Combined Diesel or Electric)

Diesel engines:                                 2 × 10,000 kW MCR (Maximum Continuous Rating) Propulsion type

Electric motors:                               2 × 1300 kW

Gearbox:                                              2 × double input input/single output

Propellers:                                          2 × CPP diameter 3.55 m

Perusak Kawal Rudal frigate
Perusak Kawal Rudal frigate

 

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

Generator sets:                                6 × 715 kWE (kilowatts electrical)

Emergency gen. set:                      1 × 180 kWE (kilowatts electrical)

Chilled water system:                   2 × units, redundant distrubution

Fire fighting:                                       4 × main pumps + 1 × service pump

Degaussing System

 

DECK EQUIPMENT

Helicopter deck:                   max. 10 tons helicopter, with lashing points

Heli operations:                    day/night with refueling system

Helicopter hangar

RAS (Replenishment at Sea):     on helicopter deck PS&SB, astern fuelling

Boats:                                           2 × RHIB (Rigid-Hulled Inflatable Boat)

PKR frigate
PKR frigate

 

ACCOMMODATION

Fully air-conditioned accommodation for 120 persons

Commanding Officer:                    1

Officers:                                              26

Chief Petty Officers:                   10

Petty Officers:                                 36

Junior Ratings:                                 29

Trainee Officers:                            18

Provisions for NBC citadel/decontamination

 

WEAPON & SENSOR SUITE

3D-Surveillance & target indication radar & IFF (Identification Friend or Foe)

Radar/electro optical fire control

Hull Mounted Sonar

Combat management system

Medium calibre gun 76 mm

1 × Close In Weapon System

2 × SSM (Surface-to-Surface Missile) launcher

12 cell VL (Vertical Launch) SHORADS

2 × triple 324 mm Torpedo launcher

ESM & ECM (Electronic Support Measures and Electronic Countermeasures systems)

2 × Decoys/chaff

Integrated internal & external communication system

 

NAUTICAL EQUIPMENT

Integrated bridge console, 2 × Radar, ECDIS (Electronic Chart Display & Information System), GMDSS-A3 (Global Maritime Distress and Safety System), reference gyro

 

Big problems
of small ships

«Something is rotten in the state of Denmark» (Hamlet 1.4). The U.S. Navy again restructures Littoral Combat Ship’s programme. The LCS is known as «the WARship that can’t go to WAR» because of its high vulnerability. «The Navy needs a Small Surface Combatant», Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Jonathan Greenert, told reporters at the Pentagon.

SUW Configured Independence
SUW Configured Independence

Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel has directed the Navy «to move forward with a multi-mission Small Surface Combatant (SSC) based on modified Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) hull designs. The new SSC will offer improvements in ship lethality and survivability, delivering enhanced naval combat performance at an affordable price».

Consistent with the Fleet’s views on the most valued capabilities delivered by a Small Surface Combatant, the modified LCS ship will provide multi-mission anti-surface warfare (SUW) and anti-submarine warfare capabilities (ASW), as well as continuous and effective air, surface and underwater self-defense. Adding to current LCS Flight 0+ baseline configurations, which include the 57 mm gun and SeaRAM Anti-Ship Missile Defense System, this ship will be equipped with:

  • over-the-horizon Surface-to-Surface Missiles;
  • air defense upgrades (sensors and weapons);
  • an advanced electronic warfare system;
  • advanced decoys;
  • a towed array system for submarine detection and torpedo defense;
  • two 25 mm guns;
  • an armed helicopter (MH-60R Seahawk) capable of engaging with either Hellfire missiles or Mark-54 torpedoes;
  • and an unmanned Fire Scout helicopter for surveillance, reconnaissance, and targeting.
SUW Configured Freedom
SUW Configured Freedom

Modularity design features will also be retained to augment SUW and ASW capabilities as directed by the Fleet Commanders. Available mission modules include Longbow Surface-to-Surface Missiles (Hellfire), two Mark-46 30 mm guns, and two 11M RHIBs for Surface Warfare, or a variable depth sonar for submarine warfare which, when added to the ship’s organic multi-function towed array and embarked helicopter, make this an extremely effective anti-submarine warfare platform.

In addition to the improved weapon systems capabilities for this ship, which reduce its susceptibility to being hit by a threat weapon, the Small Surface Combatant will also include improved passive measures – measures that will reduce the ship’s signature against mine threats, and measures that will harden certain vital spaces and systems against potential damage caused by weapon impact – to further enhance its overall survivability.

From an operational perspective, the sum of these improvements will increase the ship’s capability and availability to participate in SUW Surface Action Groups, ASW Search and Attack Units; escort of High Value Units, and support of Carrier Strike Group (CSG) SUW and ASW operations.

With increased lethality and survivability, the modified LCS will provide the flexibility to operate both independently and as a part of an aggregated force. This decision allows the Navy to add organic multi-mission capabilities to the Small Surface Combatant force while leveraging the benefits and affordability of the LCS program.

SSC improvements to the LCS fleet
SSC improvements to the LCS fleet

The modified LCS ships will complement the planned 32 LCS ships, resulting in a 52 ship Small Surface Combatant Fleet in keeping with the Navy’s Force Structure Analysis. The 32 LCS ships, with their full modular capability, will allow the Navy to deploy assets to meet the Navy’s mine warfare, SUW, and ASW demands.

According to Chuck Hagel, «production of the new SSC will begin no later than fiscal year 2019, and there will be no gap between production of the last LCS and the first SSC. A significant advantage to this approach is the ability to enhance naval combat performance by back-fitting select SSC improvements to the LCS fleet. By avoiding a new class of ships and new system design costs, it also represents the most responsible use of our industrial base investment while expanding the commonality of the Navy’s fleet».

«The new SSC ships will cost about $60 to 75 million more than the current versions of LCS. Over the life of each class, both have come in at less than $500 million a hull, not including the mission packages», Sean Stackley, Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development & Acquisition (RDA) told reporters.

USS Independence
USS Independence

However, and this new concept was heavily criticized by some experts. For example, the editor of the defense-aerospace.com says, «the idea that the LCS’ numerous flaws – unworkable modular design, cost overruns, inability to take battle damage, faulty design and construction, unworkable operational concept with interchangeable mission packages and crews (3-2-1) – can be fixed by resigning an improved version called SSC seems unlikely to result in an operationally effective ship, but will certainly add additional cost to the LCS’ already unconscionably high price tag. The LCS was designed, as its name implies, for coastal work in shallow and constrained waters where it could be supported by other larger and better-armed ships. However, it cannot be expected to operate effectively in theaters like the Pacific, and especially not anywhere within hundreds of miles of the Chinese coast, where it would be operationally useless, yet still a sitting duck».

Another example, Clark, the naval analyst, in his report, spells out exactly why the ship’s ASCM (Anti-Ship Cruise Missiles) vulnerability is a fatal one, especially in circumstances where an LCS is tasked with defending a larger ship.

«Given the LCS’s short-range missiles, a defended ship would have to operate too close to the LCS to permit effective maneuvering and the LCS would have to be positioned between the incoming missile and the escorted ship or directly in front of or behind the escorted ship. To ensure the incoming ASCM is intercepted, two RAM (Rolling Airframe Missile) would likely be shot at each incoming ASCM. This would result in the LCS’s magazine of RAMs being exhausted after ten ASCM attacks. In the LCS’s envisioned littoral operating environment, more ASCM attacks would likely occur before the ship could reload its RAM magazine».

The avoidance of detection, the LCS’s only real survival capability, will become more difficult thanks to improvements in ship locating technologies. Frank Hoffman, a former deputy director of the Navy’s Office of Program Appraisal, told Defense One that enhancements to Chinese ship detection capabilities would render the LCS a very, very targetable ship.

 

USS Independence (LCS-2)
USS Independence (LCS-2)

The Independence Variant of the LCS Class

 

Principal dimensions

Construction:                        Hull and superstructure – aluminium alloy

Length overall:                      127.1 m

Beam overall:                         31.4 m

Hull draft (maximum):       4.5 m

 

Payload and capacities

Complement:                          Core Crew – 40

Mission crew – 36

Berthing:                                    76 in a mix of single, double & quad berthing compartments

Maximum mission load:     210 tonnes

Mission packages:                 ASW, SUW, MIW

 

Propulsion

Main engines:                          2 × GE LM2500

2 × MTU 20V 8000

Waterjets:                                  4 × Wartsila steerable

Bow thruster:                           Retractable azimuthing

 

Performance

Speed:                                             40 knots (46 mph, 74 km/h)

Range:                                             3,500 NM (6,482 km)

Operational limitation:         Survival in Sea State 8

 

Mission/Logistics deck

Deck area:                                    >2000 m2

Launch and recovery:            Twin boom extending crane

Loading:                                         Side ramp

Internal elevator to hanger

 

Flight deck and hanger

Flight deck dimensions:         2 × SH-60 or 1 × CH-53

Hanger:                               Aircraft stowage & maintenance for 2 × SH-60

 

Weapons and sensors

Standard:                                        1 × 57 mm gun

4 × .50 caliber guns

1 × SAM launcher

3 × weapons modules

Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)
Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)

 

Independence Class LCS (Littoral Combat Ship)  (http://navyarm.blogspot.ru/2014/11/independence-class-lcs.html)

LaserSaber for the Navy

As David Smalley, Office of Naval Research Public Affairs reported, new laser weapon system (LaWS) was for the first time successfully deployed and operated aboard a naval vessel in the Arabian Gulf. The operational demonstrations, which took place from September to November 2014 aboard USS Ponce (AFSB[I] 15), showed a laser weapon working aboard a deployed U.S. Navy ship, besides LaWS operated seamlessly with existing ship defense systems.

An operational demonstration of the Laser Weapon System
An operational demonstration of the Laser Weapon System

«Laser weapons are powerful, affordable and will play a vital role in the future of naval combat operations», said Rear Admiral Matthew L. Klunder, chief of naval research. «We ran this particular weapon, a prototype, through some extremely tough paces, and it locked on and destroyed the targets we designated with near-instantaneous lethality».

Specifically, during the tests, the 30-kilowatt LaWS hit targets mounted aboard a speeding oncoming small boat, shot a Scan Eagle Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) out of the sky, and destroyed other moving targets at sea.

The Office of Naval Research sponsored Laser Weapon System
The Office of Naval Research sponsored Laser Weapon System

Sailors worked daily with LaWS over several months since it was installed, and reported the weapon performed flawlessly, including in adverse weather conditions of high winds, heat and humidity. They noted the system exceeded expectations for both reliability and maintainability.

The system is operated by a video game like controller, and can address multiple threats using a range of escalating options, from non-lethal measures such as optical «dazzling» and disabling, to lethal destruction if necessary. It could prove to be a pivotal asset against what are termed «asymmetric threats», which include small attack boats and UAVs.

Chief Fire Controlman Brett Richmond, right, and Lt. j.g. Katie Woodard, operate the Laser Weapon System
Chief Fire Controlman Brett Richmond, right, and Lt. j.g. Katie Woodard, operate the Laser Weapon System

Data regarding accuracy, lethality and other factors from the USS Ponce deployment will guide the development of weapons under ONR’s Solid-State Laser-Technology Maturation program. Under this program, industry teams have been selected to develop cost-effective, combat-ready laser prototypes that could be installed on vessels such as guided-missile destroyers (Arleigh Burke-class) and the Littoral Combat Ship in the early 2020s. Researchers say the revolutionary technology breakthroughs demonstrated by LaWS will ultimately benefit not only U.S. Navy surface ships, but also airborne and ground-based weapon systems.

While laser weapons offer new levels of precision and speed for naval warfighters, they also bring increased safety for ships and crews, as lasers are not dependent on the traditional propellant and gunpowder-based ordnance found on ships. Lasers run on electricity and can be fired as long as there is power.

The Afloat Forward Staging Base (Interim) USS Ponce (ASB(I) 15)
The Afloat Forward Staging Base (Interim) USS Ponce (ASB(I) 15)

They also cost less to build, install and fire than traditional kinetic weapons – for example a multimillion-dollar missile. «At less than a dollar per shot, there’s no question about the value LaWS provides», said Klunder. «With affordability a serious concern for our defense budgets, this will more effectively manage resources to ensure our Sailors are never in a fair fight».

The Navy already has demonstrated the effectiveness of lasers in a variety of maritime settings. In a 2011 demonstration, a laser was used to defeat multiple small boat threats from a destroyer (USS Dewey DDG 105). In 2012, LaWS downed several unmanned aircraft in tests during naval exercises. Specific details on next steps and timeframes are being determined as the data from the current demonstrations are analyzed.

According to Sam LaGrone, the USNI Online Editor at the U.S. Naval Institute, the next step for laser weapons will be a 100 to 150 kilowatt version it plans to test in 2016 or 2017.

 

Ocean Eagle

As we know, the Independence-class of Littoral Combat Ships, built for the United States Navy, is the high-speed trimaran vessel. Austal’s team determined that the trimaran hull form offered significant passenger comfort and stability advantages over both a catamaran and a monohull. Although the trimaran hull increases the total surface area, it is still able to reach sustainable speeds of about 50 knots (93 km/h, 58 mph), with a range of 10,000 nautical miles (19,000 km; 12,000 mi). (http://navyarm.blogspot.ru/2014/11/ independence-class-lcs.html)

The Ocean Eagle 43 is designed for surveillance missions and maritime response
The Ocean Eagle 43 is designed for surveillance missions and maritime response

A French shipyard Constructions Mécaniques de Normandie (CMN, located in Cherbourg) decided to repeat the success of its American competitors. CMN has been working on a very innovative design, adopting a trimaran hull, designed with a world expert on this architecture. More precisely, there are two projects: Ocean Eagle 43 and Ocean Eagle 43 MH.

 

Ocean Eagle 43

This conceptual ship is an ocean patrol trimaran combining a very slender hull with two small floats enabling the required stability. This combination, according to the French shipbuilders, reduces the fuel expenditure, increases speed and autonomy, while insuring a good level of comfort even in moderate to rough sea conditions.

Ocean Eagle 43
Ocean Eagle 43

 

Main Characteristics

Length Overall:                                        43.60 m

Beam Overall:                                           15.70 m

Maximum draught:                                1.60 m

Maximum speed:                                     30 Kts (56 km/h)

Range at 18 Kts (33 km/h):                3000 Nautical Miles (5556 km)

Range at 12 Kts (22 km/h):                5000 Nautical Miles (9260 km)

Crew:                                                              13 persons

Fuel:                                                                 21 m3

Fresh water:                                                2.0 m3

Hull & Superstructure:                          Composite Materials

Classification:                                             Bureau Veritas

 

Missions:

  • Sea policing and State action at sea;
  • Fight against piracy, trafficking, smuggling and illegal immigration;
  • Surveillance of exclusive economic and fishing zones;
  • Monitoring of marine environment;
  • Protection of vulnerable vessels and offshore installations and escort of convoys;
  • Defence against asymmetric threats, speedboats and the boarding of terrorists;
  • Safety at sea;
  • Search And Rescue (SAR).

Ocean Eagle 43 can also be adapted for side scan sonar operation, special operations support, surveying and coastal oceanography.

Ocean Eagle 43, concept
Ocean Eagle 43, concept

 

Performance and Competitive Features:

  • Very high fuel economy: 238 nautical miles travelled at 15 knots with only 1 ton of fuel (nearly 50 miles for a mono-hull Offshore Patrol Vessel  at the same speed);
  • Large modularity adapted to the full range of maritime surveillance tasks;
  • High reliability and straightforward maintenance;
  • An excellent ratio of (surface area covered + performance)/operational costs;
  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) capabilities increasing largely the line of sight.

 

Typical Mission Systems:

  • 20 mm remote-controlled gun-turret;
  • Electro-optical observation system;
  • Two 12.7 mm side gun;
  • Radio direction finder;
  • C2 system;
  • Rotary UAV.
Ocean Eagle with rotary UAV
Ocean Eagle with rotary UAV

 

Main Equipment & Auxiliaries:

  • 7 m outboard RHIB (Rigid-Hulled Inflatable Boat) mounted on the stern ramp for policing intervention, transshipments or naval special ops
  • 2 main generators
  • 4 diesel engines
  • 2 CPP (Controllable Pitch Propellers)

 

 

Ocean Eagle 43 MH

This vessel is the mine hunting version of the Ocean Eagle 43. The mine warfare-operating mode is based on the use of autonomous or remote operated vehicles embarked on the Ocean Eagle 43 MH playing the Mother Ship role. Operations are done at safe distance from the trimaran vessel. Detection of the Mines at long range improves the safety for the Mother Ship, assures the integrity of the crew and ensures the success of the mission.

Ocean Eagle 43 MH
Ocean Eagle 43 MH

 

Main Characteristics

Length Overall:                                    43.60 m

Beam Overall:                                       15.70 m

Maximum draught:                             2.00 m

Maximum speed:                                 19 Knots (35 km/h)

Mine hunting speed:                           between 0 to 8 Knots (15 km/h)

Range at 14 Kts (26 km/h):             2500 Nautical Miles (4630 km)

Crew:                                                           15

Fuel:                                                             18 m3

Fresh water:                                            2 m3

Hull & Superstructure:                      Composite Materials

Classification Bureau:                        Veritas

 

Missions:

  • Detection and treatment of naval mines;
  • Deployment of the Mine Warfare equipment Autonomous Underwater Vehicles and Unmanned Undersea Vehicles (AUV and UUV);
  • Support to Mine Warfare diver operations;
  • Sea policing and State action at sea;
  • Fight against piracy, trafficking, smuggling and illegal immigration;
  • Defense against asymmetric threats, speedboats and the boarding of terrorists.
Ocean Eagle 43 MH, concept
Ocean Eagle 43 MH, concept

 

Performance and Competitive Features:

  • Low Magnetic and Acoustic Signature;
  • Very high fuel economy compare to existing mine-hunting vessels;
  • High reliability and straightforward maintenance;
  • An excellent ratio of (surface area covered + performance)/operational costs.

 

Typical Mission Systems:

  • Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) equipped with side scan sonar for detection and classification of mines;
  • 6 Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) for Mine Identification, Inspection or Disposal;
  • Mine hunting data and mission management system;
  • Diving equipment;
  • 20 mm remote-controlled gun-turret;
  • Electro-optical observation system;
  • Two 12.7 mm side guns;
  • Radio direction finder;
  • Command & Control (C2) System.

 

Main Equipment & Auxiliaries:

  • Degaussing system;
  • Electric propulsion with 2 collapsible azimuth thrusters for mine-hunting mission;
  • 2 diesel engines with 2 CPP for cruising and naval mission;
  • 3 generating sets;
  • 5 m outboard RHIB.

 

Global Combat Ship

As Richard Scott from London (IHS Jane’s Defence Weekly) reported, UK Secretary of State for Defence Michael Fallon has confirmed the selection of the strike-length Mark-41 Vertical Launch System (VLS) to meet the Flexible Strike Silo requirement for the Royal Navy’s next-generation Type 26 Global Combat Ship (GCS).

Type 26 Global Combat Ship
Type 26 Global Combat Ship

As it is planned, each combat ship will be fitted with three eight-cell modules in a silo sited forward of the bridge. Mister Fallon confirmed the decision to install a 24-cell Flexible Strike Silo fitted with Mark-41 launchers in a written response to Rory Stewart MP, chairman of the House of Commons Defence Committee. His statement said the VLS infrastructure «will be able to accommodate a range of missiles from long-range strike weapons (such as the Tomahawk Land Attack Missile) to Anti-Ship Missiles and Anti-Submarine Rockets with the weapon payload being reconfigured to meet changing threats and missions». (http://www.parliament.uk/ documents/commons-committees/defence/141009_SoS_re_Type_ 26_Global_Combat_Ship.pdf)

As previously reported by representatives of the company BAE Systems, the GCS will be a highly capable and versatile multi-mission warship designed to support anti-submarine warfare, air defence and general-purpose operations anywhere on the world’s oceans.

With the design and development underpinned by battle proven pedigree of Royal Navy warships, the GCS will be capable of undertaking a wide range of roles from high intensity conflict to humanitarian assistance. It will be capable of operating independently or as a key asset within a task group.

All variants of will share a common acoustically quiet hull and will take full advantage of modular design and open systems architecture to facilitate through-life support and upgrades as new technology develops. This will ensure the GCS remains relevant to future maritime demands and delivers an adaptable design with the ability to accommodate sub-systems to meet individual country needs.

Type 26 Global Combat Ship, design concept only
Type 26 Global Combat Ship, design concept only

The Assessment Phase for the Type 26 programme began in March 2010 and a joint team of more than 650 people from across BAE Systems and wider industry are working with the Ministry of Defence on the engineering of the ship and to prepare proposals to be submitted later this year. The team aims to secure a manufacturing contract that will sustain this long-term national capability by the end of 2014.

As it is expected, the Type 26 will replace the UK’s Type 23 frigates. Under current plans, 13 Type 26 ships will be delivered to the Royal Navy, with manufacturing in Glasgow scheduled to start in 2016. The first vessel is due to enter service as soon as possible after 2020 and the Type 26 class will remain in service until 2060.

 

Mission capability

Versatility of roles is enabled by the Integrated Mission Bay and Hanger, capable of supporting multiple helicopters, Unmanned Undersea Vehicles, boats, mission loads and disaster relief stores. A launcher can be provided for fixed wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle operation and the Flight Deck is capable of landing a CH-47 Chinook helicopter for transport of embarked forces.

The first vessel is due to enter service as soon as possible after 2020
The first vessel is due to enter service as soon as possible after 2020

 

Principal Weapons and Sensors

Artisan 3D radar

Sonar 2087

Sea Ceptor anti-air missiles

Medium calibre gun

Mark-41 Vertical Launch System

 

Propulsion

2 electric motors

4 high-speed diesel generators

Gas turbine direct drive

 

Accommodation

Accommodation, health and recreation services for 118 crew and 72 embarked forces

 

Main dimensions

Displacement:                         6000 tonnes

Length:                                         148.5 metres

Maximum beam:                     20 metres

 

Performance

Top speed:                                  26+ knots (48 km/h)

Range:                                           7,000 nautical miles (12,964 km)

 

 

Under the scheme «3-2-1»

The U.S. Navy deployed its third Littoral Combat Ship (LCS), USS Fort Worth, on a 16-month journey to Southeast Asia for an expedition that will build upon the success of USS Freedom’s 2013 voyage. The new ship will operate from Singapore, the Navy announced.

USS Fort Worth (LCS-3)
USS Fort Worth (LCS-3)

The U.S. Navy has said that while deployed, the ship will visit more ports, collaborate with more navies and expand LCS capabilities including the MQ-8B Fire Scout Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. USS Fort Worth departed from his homeport Naval Station San Diego (California) on November 17 and is due back in March 2016.

The ship’s Commander, Kendall Bridgewater, was enthusiastic about the upcoming mission and expressed his confidence in recent interviews with media who were invited to tour the ship prior to deployment. «The LCS is a fast ship with a shallow draft, which allows it to go into ports other Navy ships can’t access», Bridgewater said. «We can go in and engage with a lot more partners and allies», he said.

Along with an expansion of operations from the 2013 deployment, Fort Worth will be the first LCS to test the Navy’s so-called «3-2-1» deployment scheme. In fact, such a scheme of service is a classic shift work. Specifically, three crews will each take a four-month rotation on two LCS ships, one deployed and one in port. The idea of this scheme is to minimize crew fatigue and maximize the utility of a forward deployed ship. The service plans to have USS Fort Worth deployed for a total of 16 months.

USS Forth Worth embarked with a detachment from Helicopter Maritime Strike Squadron (HSM) 35 that will operate both a MH-60R Seahawk manned helicopter and a MQ-8B Fire Scout rotary-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).

The ship, which has traveled more than 40,000 nautical miles, is the second LCS built by the Lockheed Martin-led industry team, which includes Marinette Marine Corporation (MMC) and Gibbs & Cox. Forth Worth was delivered to the Navy in 2012, two months ahead of schedule.

While USS Fort Worth conducts its mission in Southeast Asia, the industry team continues to build Freedom-variant LCSs at MMC in Marinette, Wisconsin, with six under construction:

USS Freedom (LCS-1) – commissioned 2008 – San Diego

USS Fort Worth (LCS-3) – commissioned 2012 – San Diego

USS Milwaukee (LCS-5) – commissioned 2015

USS Detroit (LCS-7)

USS Little Rock (LCS-9)

USS Sioux City (LCS-11)

USS Witchta (LCS-13)

USS Billings (LCS-15)

USS Indianapolis (LCS-17)

Ship Design Features
Ship Design Features

Ship Design Specifications

Hull:                                                   Advanced semiplaning steel monohull

Length Overall:                           118.6 meters (389 feet)

Beam Overall:                              17.5 meters (57 feet)

Draft:                                                 4.1 meters (13.5 feet)

Full Load Displacement:        Approximately 3,200 metric tons

Top Speed:                                     Greater than 40 knots

Watercraft Launch and Recovery:    Up to Sea State 4

Aircraft Launch and Recovery:            Up to Sea State 5

Propulsion:                                     Combined diesel and gas turbine with steerable water jet propulsion

Hangar Space:                              Two H-60 helos or one H-60 helo and three VTUAVs

Core Crew:                                     Less than 50; Accommodations for 75 sailors provide higher sailor quality of life than current fleet

Integrated Bridge System:    Fully digital nautical charts are interfaced to ship sensors to support safe ship operation

Core Self-Defense Suite:       Includes 3D air search radar, Rolling Airframe Missile, medium caliber gun, EO/IR gunfire control system and decoy launching system

 

MH-60R Seahawk
MH-60R Seahawk

MH-60R Seahawk Specifications

Dimensions

Operating length                      64.83 ft/19.76 m

Operating width                       53.66 ft/16.35 m

Operating height                      16.70 ft/5.10 m

Folded length                              41.05 ft/12.51 m

Folded width                               11.00 ft/3.35 m

Folded height                              12.92 ft/3.94 m

Main rotor diameter               53.66 ft/16.35 m

Tail rotor diameter                  11.00 ft/3.35 m

Airframe Characteristics

Mission gross weight (Surface Warfare, SUW)        21,290 lb/9,657 kg

Maximum takeoff gross weight                              23,500 lb/10,681.82 kg

Engines                                           (2) T700-GE-401C

Mission endurance (SUW)  3.30 hours

Dash speed                                  140 kts/259 km/h

Weapons                                      Anti-ship missiles, torpedoes, 50 cal. guns

Auxiliary fuel                              Up to two external tanks

 

LCS 3 Builder’s Trials

Freedom Class LCS (Littoral Combat Ship)(http://navyarm.blogspot.ru/2014/11/freedom-class-lcs.html)

Ula retires

The Ula-class submarines are among the most silent and maneuverable subs in the world. This, in combination with their relatively small size (length: 59 m; beam: 5.4 m; draft: 4.6 m), makes them very difficult to detect from surface vessels and quite ideal for operations in coastal areas. Therefore it is not surprising that these diesel-electric submarines are regarded as both the most effective and cost-effective weapons in the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN).

HNoMS Ula (S300)
HNoMS Ula (S300)

However, it must be noted that six Ula-class submarines were commissioned between 1989 and 1992, designed for a service life of thirty years. These submarines are insufficient to meet future, high-tech threats. As defense-aerospace.com reported, Norway’s future submarine capability has been studied since 2007. The studies have been conducted in two phases, both with thorough external quality reviews before being presented. The Norwegian Government has now taken a conceptual decision on future submarine capability.

«Submarines are a vital capability in the Norwegian Armed Forces, and have a major impact on our overall defence capability. Together with combat aircraft and Special Operations Forces (SOF), submarines are among the armed forces’ most important capabilities. Hence, it is very important that we now have established that the acquisition of new submarines will form the basis for further project work. This decision makes it possible for us to maintain a credible submarine capability», says Minister of Defence Ine Eriksen Søreide.

He also noted that that the ability to operate covertly, which is so vital for the submarine’s relevance, will be significantly better for a new watercrafts than what is achievable through service life extension of the current fleet. This is due to lower acoustic signatures and a better hydrodynamic design.

It is a substantial task that awaits the project organization. Part of the work will be to evaluate potential cooperation with other countries in terms of procurement, training and maintenance. A partnership can contribute to economies of scale and a robust solution throughout the life of the submarines. I guess the Norwegian Government will cooperate with Germany, as it was while Ula-class submarines were assembled in Germany by Thyssen Nordseewerke, Emden. By the way, in Germany the Ula-design submarines are known as the U-Boot-Klasse 210.

The decision only entails that the project moves into a new phase – the project definition phase. No investment decisions have so far been taken. By the end of 2016, a recommendation on the future submarine capability will be presented. Thereafter, pending the Governments decision, an investment proposal will be presented to Norwegian Parliament. This will enable the delivery of new submarines to the Norwegian Navy starting from the mid 2020’s. Thus, the Ula-class must be kept operational for additionally five years (!) in order to maintain a continuous submarine capability until a replacement is operational. Studies, carried out by the Ministry of Defence, show that it would have been very costly and impractical to extend the service life beyond this.

The total investment cost of this major project depends on the number of submarines and the weapons inventory. Of course, we are talking about diesel-electric watercrafts. Norway cannot afford to build and maintain nuclear-powered submarines.

«I emphasize that we have not decided the final level of ambition for this project or the number of submarines. This is something I will give my recommendation on when the project is presented in 2016», says the Minister of Defence.

Diesel-electric submarine
Diesel-electric submarine

Diesel submarines return

It is a well-known fact that in the United States Navy as well as in the Royal Navy and French Navy all combatant submarines are nuclear-powered. At the same time as Russia, China and India operate not only nuclear-powered submarines, but also diesel-electric submarines.

Scorpene SSK (above), SMX-Océan (center), Barracuda SSN (below)
Scorpene SSK (above), SMX-Océan (center), Barracuda SSN (below)

There are some sophisticated models among modern diesel-electric submarines. I reckon the most advanced subs of that type are Sōryū-class attack submarines (Japan) and Type 214 class submarines (Germany). Sōryū-class submarines are fitted with air-independent propulsion based on Kockums stirling engines license-built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, allowing them to stay submerged for longer periods of time. Therefore, I am not surprised that Australian officials are leaning towards replacing the Collins-class submarine with Sōryū-class boats bought from Japan.

Apparently, France is going to return to the club of diesel-electric submarines. As naval-technology.com reported, SMX-Océan, a conventionally powered attack submarine design concept, unveiled by DCNS Group, is based on the basic Barracuda-class nuclear submarine layout including weapons, masts and combat system. The SMX-Océan submarine will be a transposition of the Barracuda SSN nuclear powered attack submarine into diesel-electric submarine (SSK). It is expected to enter into French Navy’s service by 2017.

The new multi-role submarine will be suitable for deployment in anti-surface warfare (ASuW), anti-submarine warfare (ASW), anti-air warfare (AAW), land attack and even Special Forces missions. Special operations forces (SOF) equipment for 16 divers will be fitted to the sub, as will an internal reserved area, lock out chamber for eight divers, and an external watertight storage. It will also feature a dry dock shelter, hyperbaric chamber, swimmers delivery vehicle, and unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) dock. The SMX-Océan submarine will integrate sensors with manned or unmanned vehicles that provide capability to gather intelligence in four domains including air, surface, under the sea and on the land. It will be capable of launching UUVs and unmanned air vehicles (UAVs).

With up to three months’ endurance, an SMX-Océan could cross the Atlantic six times without surfacing. DCNS teams have developed and combined a number of innovations including a high-performance air-independent propulsion (AIP) system using second-generation fuel cells for submerged endurance of up to three weeks (21 days). With a total of 34 weapons including torpedoes, mines, anti-ship missiles, cruise missiles and anti-air missiles, the SMX-Océan’s firepower will be unprecedented for an SSK. The SMX-Océan concept design also includes vertical launchers to provide a salvo capability for cruise missile strikes on land targets.

SMX-Océan conventionally powered attack submarine
SMX-Océan conventionally powered attack submarine

 

Technical data

Length:                                                             100 m (330ft)

Height:                                                             15.5 m

Beam:                                                               8.8 m (28.9ft)

Surface displacement:                            4,750 t

Maximum diving depth:                         350 m

Maximum speed, submerged:            20 kts

Range:                                                               18,000 nmi at 10 kts speed

Navy needs new «docks»

It is not a secret of the Universe our World is changing. After the Russian-Georgian and Russian-Ukrainian war, NATO revised its understanding of Russia. Moscow made no secret of his ambition with regard to its neighbors. Thus, the United States understood the need to maintain amphibious fleet in a constant state of readiness to be able to move troops in Europe.

LPD Flight II
LPD Flight II, Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc.

As said Sam LaGrone, the USNI Online Editor at the U.S. Naval Institute, Huntington Ingalls Industries (HII) has revised its plan to use the hull form of the San Antonio-class amphibious warship (http://navyarm.blogspot.ru/2014/11/san-antonio-class-lpd.html) as a candidate for the Navy’s next generation amphibious warship – LX(R).

HII’s new Flight IIA modifies the original LPD-17 design by removing some of the higher end capabilities of the San Antonio and creating a so-called amphibious truck to replace the existing class of aging Whidbey Island (http://navyarm.blogspot.ru/2014/11/whidbey-island-lsd.html) and Harpers Ferry (http://navyarm.blogspot.ru/ 2014/11/harpers-ferry-class-lsd.html) 16,000-ton landing ship docks (LSD).

The largest improvement in capability will be to the ship’s communication and aviation ability.

The current LSDs have a minimal command and control capability – the ability to communicate with other U.S. military forces and coordinate different types of aircraft and smaller vessel – and no native ability to host and maintain the aircraft of the trio of ships that make up the Navy’s Amphibious Ready Groups (ARGs).

The LX(R) will be much bigger than the ships it will be replacing – displacing about 7,000 more than the current LSDs at 23,470 tons, HII officials told USNI News.

Instead of the four Colt-Pielstick diesel engines, HII’s model reduces the prime mover count to two unspecified main propulsion diesel engines (MPDE).

The Mark-46 30mm gun weapon system is replaced with a Mark-38 Mod 2 remote controlled 25mm chain gun providing offensive and defensive ability.

The AN/SPS-48E air search radar is replaced with a TRS-3D, which is currently outfitted on the National Security Cutter providing a more suitable sensor for its mission.

The Flight IIA retains about half of the medical spaces on the LPD. Company officials also said the current iteration would feature two spots for the Navy’s LCAC hovercraft or one utility landing craft (LCU) – which is in line with the Navy’s current thinking for requirements for the LX(R). Other changes include reducing the troop capacity from 800 to 500 with a crew of about 400 sailors.

Though HII is original designers and builders of the LPD-17 ships, they are not guaranteed the design and construction contract for the new LX(R) ship class. General Dynamics NASSCO in San Diego, California has also helped the Navy in its current push to lower the cost at the start of the acquisition process and is considered likely to bid on the final work.

The Navy’s frontend analysis of alternatives process for LX(R) has been described as, «the best ship design conversation we’ve had in a long time inside the government», NAVSEA chief Vice Adm. William Hilarides said in May.

HII officials didn’t announce a cost estimate for their version, but according to past information from the Navy a San Antonio LX(R) could cost about $1.64 billion for the lead ship with follow-ons costing about $1.4 billion for a total of 11 ships.

Flight II vs. LPD 17
Flight II vs. LPD 17

 

Dimensions

Overall length: 684 ft, 208.5m

Beam, DWL: 105 ft, 31.9m

Full load Draft: 21.7 ft, 6.6m

 

Weights (long tons)

Lightship: 16,600

Full load at delivery: 22,800

 

Performance

Sustained Speed: 20+ knots

Installed Power: 26,820 SHP

Service Life: 40 years

 

Machinery Systems

20 MW MPDE

Direct Drive Reduction Gears

2 x Controllable Pitch Propellers

 

Amphibious Systems

Vehicle Square (net): 24,600 sq ft

Cargo Cube (net): 17,000 cu ft

Cargo Fuel, JP-5: 310,000 gal

Landing Craft: 2 x LCAC or 1 x LCU

Well Deck Operations: Wet/Dry

 

Navigation

NAVSSI

AN/UQN-4A Sonar Sounding Set

AN/WQN-2 DSVL

AN/SPS-73 Surface Search Radar

AN/WSN-7

AN/URN-26 TACAN

Anti-Jam GPS

Integrated Bridge

 

Communications

SI COMMS

HF/VHF/UHF Voice/Data

DWTS/EPLRS

UHF/SHF/EHF SATCOM

SMS

Secure VTC

SWAN

 

EW & Decoy

AN/SLQ-25

AN/SLQ-32A

MK-36 SRBOC

 

Aviation Facilities

Land/Launch Spots

2 x CH-53E or

2 x MV-22 or

2 x CH-46 or

2 x AH/UH-1

 

Electric Plant

AC Zonal Distribution System

10 KW

400 Hz Frequency Converters

 

Auxiliary Systems

A/C Plants (CFC Free): 1,500 tons installed

RO Plants: 72,000 GPD installed

Cargo Elevators: 12,000 lb capacity

Lift Platform: 6,000 lb capacity

 

Medical Facilities

Medical Operating Rooms: 1

Hospital Ward Beds: 8

Dental Operating Rooms: 1

 

Accommodations

Ship’s complement: 396

Troop: 506 Total

 

Surveillance

2D/3D Radars

AN/SPQ-9B – Fire Control Radar

AN/UPX-29 Central IFF

 

Weapons

2 x RAM Launchers

2 x 25mm Mark-38

4 x .50 Caliber Machine Guns

 

Command and Control

Links 11, 16

AN/SPQ-12V

NTCSS

GCCS-M

SGS/AC

CENTRIX

 

Survivability

Collective Protection System (Single Zone)

Strengthened Structure Against Whipping

Fragmentation Protection

Water Mist Fire Extinguising System

Degaussing System

 

Great ships require
deep waters

Canberra’s Commander Air, Commander Paul Moggach, told IHS Jane’s that the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) commissioned first-of-class landing helicopter dock HMAS Canberra in Sydney on 28 November.

HMAS Canberra (LHD 02)
HMAS Canberra (LHD 02)

Thus, the sealift capability of the RAN has been dramatically increased. Based on the design of the Spanish Navy’s aircraft carrier Juan Carlos, the Canberra can embark, transport, and deploy more than 1,000 troops and their equipment from alongside or by helicopter and landing craft.

Canberra will be joined in 2016 by sister ship HMAS Adelaide (LHD 01). The hulls of both ships were constructed by Navantia at its Ferrol facility in northwest Spain and subsequently transported by heavy-lift ship to BAE Systems in Melbourne for addition of the superstructure, fitting out, and systems integration.

Design changes for the RAN included upgrades to air conditioning, Australian explosives standards in the magazines, enhanced firefighting and medical facilities, and four Typhoon remote-controlled 25 mm weapons systems at each corner of the hull for close-in defence. The Australian-developed Nulka hovering anti-missile decoy will be fitted at a later date.

The flight deck is configured for simultaneous operation of four medium-sized helicopters, such as the NHIndustries NH90 (MRH90 in Australian service) or the Sikorsky S70A-9 Black Hawk, or four Boeing CH-47D/F Chinooks. Up to eight medium helicopters can be accommodated in the hangar, and up to 18 can be carried if the light vehicle deck is also utilised.

The four Navantia-built LCM-1E watercraft carried by each LHD can transport a maximum load of 54 tonnes via the ship’s well deck.

The ultimate goal of these efforts – an Amphibious Ready Group: a battalion-based combat team with enablers that will involve about 2,000 troops and require both LHDs to transport – is scheduled to be operational by 2017.

Initial operational capability (IOC) for Canberra is expected to be reached in 2016, enabling the ship to participate in that year’s Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) exercise.

Earlier this year Prime Minister Tony Abbott ordered an assessment of the benefits of the F-35B short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) variant of the Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter and modifying the LHDs to operate them. Unfortunately, the general reaction from senior defence sources of the Royal Australian Navy has been that additional capability would not be justified by the time, cost, and risk involved.

As it is known from open sources, the fourth American warship named for the United States of America – USS America (LHA-6) can fulfill battle missions when configured with 20 F-35B strike fighters. USS America has been modified to make her better able to withstand the great amounts of heat generated by the F-35B’s engine exhaust when taking off or landing vertically. Intercostal structural members will be added underneath flight deck landing spots seven and nine to more closely perform timed cyclic flight operations without overstressing it. Other changes may involve re-adjusting some ship antennas to allow for a clear flight path.

From this, we can conclude that it is not so easy to accommodate aircraft carriers like Australian HMAS Canberra (LHD 02) or Japan Izumo (DDH-183) for using with new multirole fighter F-35B Lightning II.

Landing Helicopter Dock
Landing Helicopter Dock

 

Platform Characteristics

Length Overall                                                                           230.8 m

Length Waterline                                                                     207.2 m

Beam                                                                                                32 m

Design Draft                                                                                7.18 m

Full Load Displacement                                                         27,831 t

Crew and Embarked Forced Accommodation         1,403

 

Machinery

Propulsion                             2 x Siemens 11,000 kW PODs

Bowthruster                         2 x 1,500 kW Brunvoll/Siemens motors

Stabilisers                               2 x Fincantieri

Generators                            1 x 22,000 kW GE LM2500 Gas Turbine and                                                       2 x 7,680 kW Diesel

Integrated Platform Management System              Navantia – Sistemas

Fresh Water                          6 x Reverse Osmosis Plants (each 25 t/day)

Sewage                                     2 x Treatment Plants

 

HMAS Adelaide (LHD 01) and HMAS Canberra (LHD 02)
HMAS Adelaide (LHD 01) and HMAS Canberra (LHD 02)

 

Performance

Maximum Speed                                                                             20+ kts

Economic Speed                                                                             15 kts

Maximum Range                                                                             9,250 nm

Endurance                                                                                           45+ days

 

Capacity

Flight Deck                                                             4,750 m²

Dock (including ramp)                                     1,165 m²

Heavy Cargo Garage                                        1,410 m²

Light Cargo Garage                                           1,880 m²

Hangar                                                                      990 m²

Garages, Hangar and Well Dock               1,350 lane metre (2.9 m wide)

General Store Rooms                                       1,079 m²

Future Growth Margin                                    672 t