Category Archives: Ground Forces

$484 million order

Oshkosh Defense, LLC, an Oshkosh Corporation (OSK) company, announced today that the U.S. Army has placed a $484 million order for 1,574 Joint Light Tactical Vehicles (JLTV) and associated installed and packaged kits.

This latest order follows the completion of the Multiservice Operational Test and Evaluation (MOT&E) conducted by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps and further demonstrates that the JLTV program continues to be a top modernization priority for our armed services
This latest order follows the completion of the Multiservice Operational Test and Evaluation (MOT&E) conducted by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps and further demonstrates that the JLTV program continues to be a top modernization priority for our armed services

«This latest order follows the completion of the Multiservice Operational Test and Evaluation (MOT&E) conducted by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps and further demonstrates that the JLTV program continues to be a top modernization priority for our armed services», said George Mansfield, Vice President and General Manager of Joint Programs at Oshkosh Defense. «The JLTV is ready to support our troops, and we look forward to getting more soldiers and Marines into this extremely mobile, protected, and proven next-generation light tactical vehicle».

In addition to the recently completed operational testing, the JLTV also completed Reliability Qualification Testing earlier this year, accumulating over 100,000 miles and exceeding reliability requirements.

To date, Oshkosh has produced more than 2,000 JLTVs and has delivered more than 1,600 JLTVs to the U.S. Army and Marine Corps. A Full Rate Production (FRP) decision is expected in FY19.

Hemispheric Radar

RADA Electronic Industries Ltd. (RADA) announced on June 29, 2018, that its Multi-Mission Hemispheric Radar (MHR), has been selected as part of the Leonardo DRS mission equipment package (MEP) solution, for the U.S. Army’s Initial Maneuver-Short Range Air Defense (IM-SHORAD) capability. DRS is in negotiations with the U.S. Army for this prototype contract which is expected to be awarded in August 2018.

RADA’s MHR Radars selected for US Army IM-SHORAD
RADA’s MHR Radars selected for US Army IM-SHORAD

The MHR radar, when integrated on the Stryker A1 platform, meets the US Army’s on-board sensor requirements and provides 360 degrees aerial surveillance, to detect and track Unmanned Airborne Systems (UAS), rotary wing and fixed wing threats at desired ranges. Each IM-SHORAD MEP includes four MHR radars which provide persistent surveillance, can execute at the short-halt and operate on-the-move.

For more information, please follow this link to view the Leonardo DRS announcement and image of the IM-SHORAD Stryker with RADA’s MHR systems on-board.

This accelerated IM-SHORAD prototype effort, requires systems to be delivered in early 2019. Nine prototype systems will provide a basis for a future production decision of more than 140 systems, beginning in 2020.

Dov Sella, RADA’s CEO, commented, «We are very proud to have been selected for this important US Army program. This selection demonstrates the extensibility and adaptability of RADA’s highly advanced active electronically scanned array (AESA), software-defined radars into multi-purpose, mission critical applications. Our recently established US joint venture, RADA Technologies LLC, will allow us to provide optimal program performance to this customer. The MHR selection substantiates our strategic investments in continuous product development and our efforts to transition and manufacture products in the U.S.».

RADA Electronic Industries Ltd. is an Israel-based defense electronics contractor. The Company specializes in the development, production, and sales of Tactical Land Radars for Force and Border Protection, and Avionics Systems (including Inertial Navigation Systems) for fighter aircraft and UAVs.

Note: Certain statements in this press release are «forward-looking statements» within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Act of 1995. Such statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results to differ materially. Such risk uncertainties and other factors include, but are not limited to, changes in general economic conditions, risks in product and technology developments, market acceptance of new products and continuing product demand, level of competition and other factors described in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 20-F and other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

High Energy Laser

Raytheon Company is developing a 100-kW class laser weapon system preliminary design for integration onboard the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV). This is a $10 million U.S. Army’s High Energy Laser Tactical Vehicle Demonstration (HEL TVD) program contract.

Raytheon designing U.S. Army laser
Raytheon designing U.S. Army laser

HEL TVD, a U.S. Army science and technology demonstration program, is part of the Army’s Indirect Fire Protection Capability (IFPC) Increment 2 initiative.

«The beauty of this system is that it’s self-contained», said Roy Azevedo, vice president of Intelligence, Reconnaissance and Surveillance Systems at Raytheon’s Space and Airborne Systems business unit. «Multi-spectral targeting sensors, fiber-combined lasers, power and thermal sub-systems are incorporated in a single package. This system is being designed to knock out rockets, artillery or mortar fire, or small drones».

Upon HEL TVD Program Option Two completion, the one supplier will be awarded a system development and demonstration contract by the Army to build and integrate a weapon system on the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles. A System, Development and Demonstration (SDD) contract decision, valued at nearly $130 million, is expected early in 2019.

Ribbon Bridge

General Dynamics European Land Systems (GDELS) has signed a contract with the Brazilian Army Commission for the production and delivery of its Improved Ribbon Bridge (IRB).

General Dynamics European Land Systems awarded new contract to supply Improved Ribbon Bridge system to Brazil
General Dynamics European Land Systems awarded new contract to supply Improved Ribbon Bridge system to Brazil

In addition to the Improved Ribbon Bridge, the company will deliver trucks, bridge adapter pallets, a bridge erection boat, as well as Integrated Logistics Support (ILS).

Delivery of the first system is scheduled for 2019.

The Brazilian Army is an existing user of the company’s Floating Support Bridge (FSB). The FSB and IRB systems are interoperable and offer key capabilities for armed forces worldwide.

The Improved Ribbon Bridge can be operated as a multi-bay ferry as well as a floating bridge. It provides wide wet-gap crossing capability for loads up to MLC80 (Military Load Capacity) Tracked/96 Wheeled.

«This new acquisition of the IRB demonstrates the high confidence and satisfaction of the Brazilian Army in the performance of our advanced bridge systems», said Thomas Kauffmann, General Dynamics European Land Systems Vice President International Business & Services.

The Improved Ribbon Bridge is in service worldwide and has supported theatre and peacekeeping operations, as well as humanitarian and environmental missions. The IRB is fully interoperable with General Dynamics European Land Systems’ legacy floating bridge systems, including the Floating Support Bridge, the Standard Ribbon Bridge (SRB) and the M3 Amphibious Bridge and Ferry System.

Future combat vehicles

DARPA’s Ground X-Vehicle Technologies (GXV-T) program aims to improve mobility, survivability, safety, and effectiveness of future combat vehicles without piling on armor. Several Phase 2 contract awardees recently demonstrated advances on a variety of potentially groundbreaking technologies to meet the program’s goals.

GXV-T advances radical technology for future combat vehicles
GXV-T advances radical technology for future combat vehicles

«We’re looking at how to enhance survivability by buttoning up the cockpit and augmenting the crew through driver-assistance aids», said Major Amber Walker, the program manager for GXV-T in DARPA’s Tactical Technology Office. «For mobility, we’ve taken a radically different approach by avoiding armor and developing options to move quickly and be agile over all terrain».

Demonstrations, such as one in May at Aberdeen Test Center, have given potential military service transition partners an opportunity to observe technical progress on the GXV-T program, including:

 

Radically Enhanced Mobility

GXV-T envisions future combat vehicles that could traverse up to 95 percent of off-road terrain, including slopes and various elevations. Capabilities include revolutionary wheel-to-track and suspension technologies that would enable access and faster travel both on- and off-road, compared to existing ground vehicles.

Reconfigurable Wheel-Track (RWT)

Wheels permit fast travel on hard surfaces while tracks perform better on soft surfaces. A team from Carnegie Mellon University National Robotics Engineering Center (CMU NREC) demonstrated shape-shifting wheel-track mechanisms that transition from a round wheel to a triangular track and back again while the vehicle is on the move, for instant improvements to tactical mobility and maneuverability on diverse terrains.

Electric In-hub Motor

Putting motors directly inside the wheels offers numerous potential benefits for combat vehicles, such as heightened acceleration and maneuverability with optimal torque, traction, power, and speed over rough or smooth terrain. In an earlier demonstration, QinetiQ demonstrated a unique approach, incorporating three gear stages and a complex thermal management design into a system small enough to fit a standard military 20-inch/51-cm rim.

Multi-mode Extreme Travel Suspension (METS)

Pratt & Miller’s METS system aims to enable high-speed travel over rough terrain while keeping the vehicle upright and minimizing occupant discomfort. The vehicle demonstrator incorporates standard military 20-inch/51-cm wheels, advanced short-travel suspension of four-to-six inches, and a novel high-travel suspension that extends up to six feet – 42 inches/106.7 cm upward and 30 inches/76.2 cm downward. The demonstration in May showed off its ability to tackle steep slopes and grades by actively and independently adjusting the hydraulic suspension on each wheel of the vehicle.

 

Crew Augmentation

Traditional combat vehicle designs have small windows that improve protection, but limit visibility. GXV-T sought solutions with multiple onboard sensors and technologies to provide high-resolution, 360-degree situational awareness while keeping the vehicle enclosed.

Enhanced 360-degree Awareness with Virtual Windows

Honeywell International demonstrated its windowless cockpit in an All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) with an opaque canopy. The 3-D near-to-eye goggles, optical head-tracker and wrap-around Active Window Display screens provide real-time, high-resolution views outside the vehicle. In off-road courses, drivers have completed numerous tests using the system in roughly the same time as drivers in All Terrain Vehicles with full visibility.

Virtual Perspectives Augmenting Natural Experience (V-PANE)

A tactical vehicle offers limited visibility and data for decision-making, especially when moving rapidly through unfamiliar territory. Raytheon BBN Technologies’ V-PANE technology demonstrator fuses data from multiple vehicle-mounted video and LiDAR cameras to create a real-time 3-D model of the vehicle and its nearby surroundings. In a final Phase 2 demonstration, drivers and commanders in a windowless recreational vehicle successfully switched among multiple virtual perspectives to accurately maneuver the vehicle and detect targets of interest during both low- and high-speed travel.

Off-Road Crew Augmentation (ORCA)

A second CMU NREC technology demonstration, ORCA aims to predict in real time the safest and fastest route and when necessary, enable a vehicle to drive itself off-road – even around obstacles. In Phase 2 testing, drivers using the ORCA aids and visual overlays traveled faster between waypoints and eliminated nearly all pauses to determine their routes. The team found autonomy improved either vehicle speed or risk posture, and sometimes both.

 

Walker said GXV-T performers are pursuing a variety of transition paths for the new technologies.

«DARPA’s excited about the progress made to date on the GXV-T program and we look forward to working with the Services to transition these technologies into ground vehicle technologies of the future», said Walker.

DARPA’s Ground X-Vehicle Technologies (GXV-T) program demonstrations show progress on technologies for traveling quickly over varied terrain and improving situational awareness and ease of operation

Franco-German MBT

Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW) and Nexter welcome the announcement by the French and the German governments on the joint development of a new Main Ground Combat System (MGCS) and a new Common Indirect Fire System (CIFS). The Letter Of Intent (LOI) signed on June 19, 2018, is a significant step forward in the defense cooperation between the two countries and in Europe. This close cooperation was the key motivation for the foundation of KNDS in 2015, where Nexter and KMW cooperate as national system houses for land systems.

The European tank unveiled by KMW and Nexter at Eurosatory 2018 in Paris mates the three-man turret of the French Leclerc with the hull of the German Leopard 2A7, and symbolizes the future French-German tank (Twitter photo)
The European tank unveiled by KMW and Nexter at Eurosatory 2018 in Paris mates the three-man turret of the French Leclerc with the hull of the German Leopard 2A7, and symbolizes the future French-German tank (Twitter photo)

MGCS will develop a new generation of Main Battle Tanks (MBTs), providing their users enhanced, innovative, and best-in-class systems with the most advanced technologies. Thus, Germany and France are jointly launching the most strategic project in European land defense for the 30 years to come, a program package that will shape the future of European armies’ main combat capabilities and contribute to Europe’s sovereignty and strategic autonomy.

The skills and background of KMW and Nexter qualify both companies as suitable and particularly powerful and pivotal industrial partners for the Franco-German landsystem-program MGCS. Thus, in close cooperation with leading technology companies, KMW and Nexter will substantially contribute to a strengthened European defense capability.

The agreement of both nations to capitalize on the success of the German and French MBT programs and to base the industrial leadership for the MGCS program in Germany demonstrates the strong commitment towards a unique European cooperation in land systems. Beyond that, it strengthens Europe’s excellence in providing leading edge land-systems-technologies for the years to come.

Milrem Robotics

The leading European missile systems designer and producer MBDA and unmanned vehicles manufacturer Milrem Robotics will begin developing the world’s first Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) specially designed for anti-tank purposes.

MBDA and Milrem Robotics to develop anti-tank unmanned ground vehicle
MBDA and Milrem Robotics to develop anti-tank unmanned ground vehicle

The joint project will feature the IMPACT (Integrated MMP Precision Attack Combat Turret) system from MBDA that will be integrated onto the THeMIS unmanned ground vehicle by Milrem Robotics.

The system will be remotely operated and is in line with the system developers’ main aim of exchanging humans on the battlefield for much more capable robots.

«One of the challenges in urban warfare is keeping anti-tank infantry hidden from the enemy’s surveillance equipment that can very easily detect soldier’s heat signature. The aim of our joint integration project is developing a system that has a low heat signature and most importantly – will keep infantry in a safe distance», explained Brig Gen (res) Alar Laneman, military advisor of Milrem Robotics.

«MMP, the world’s only 5th Generation anti-tank guided weapon, now in service within the French Armed Forces, has been developed for both mounted and dismounted applications and is suitable for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). With its 4km+ range and its two firing modes – Lock On Before Launch (LOBL) and Lock On After Launch (LOAL) – the MMP gives to THeMIS UGV an unmatched capability to engage a target beyond line of sight. MMP allows, within remote operation, to engage very discreetly battlefield targets at ranges greater than the enemies counter fire, from behind cover and within structures in fighting in built-up areas. The MMP Firing installation deployed on UGV also provides an ISTAR (Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition, & Reconnaissance) capability and, through direct integration with a Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I) network, delivers battlefield intelligence out beyond the platoon», added the former Colonel Francis Bordachar, military advisor of MBDA.

Next-Generation IFV

At Eurosatory 2018 Rheinmetall presents its new Lynx KF41 Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV) to the international public for the first time. Highly survivable, adaptable to diverse environments, extremely agile, hard hitting, and with huge payload reserves, the Lynx KF41 is a next-generation combat vehicle designed to confront the challenges of the future battlefield like no other.

Rheinmetall unveils the Lynx KF41 Next-Generation Combat Vehicle
Rheinmetall unveils the Lynx KF41 Next-Generation Combat Vehicle

Most experts agree that land forces will face unprecedented threats on the future battlefield, where emergent technologies have substantially changed the balance of power. Key technologies influencing Armoured Fighting Vehicle (AFV) design for the future include anti-access/area denial systems that reduce the ability to gain and retain air dominance, electronic warfare systems that will deny reliable communications, enhanced artillery systems that restrict freedom of action, and advanced AFV designs that are difficult to defeat with existing systems.

In concert with the technology challenges of future combat, land forces need to be relevant across the full spectrum of conflict, including contributing to peace keeping operations, conducting counter-insurgency campaigns and engaging in general war-fighting against constantly evolving threats in diverse global environments.

It is with these challenges in mind that Rheinmetall has developed the Lynx KF41 family of vehicles and the companion Lance 2.0 turret, resulting in a revolutionary IFV with a level of adaptability, survivability and capacity not seen before in an IFV family.

Ben Hudson, global head of Rheinmetall’s Vehicle Systems Division said, «With the Lynx KF41, the Rheinmetall team has developed a truly innovative next-generation combat vehicle. The breadth of capabilities that a Lynx IFV provides soldiers results in a veritable Swiss Army knife that has unprecedented utility across the full spectrum of conflict. Its modular, adaptable survivability systems allow the vehicle to evolve through life, the high level of mobility will provide battlefield commanders great tactical flexibility in combat, and the diverse effects that the Lance 2.0 turret can generate allow the crew to deal effectively with a wide variety of battlefield situations».

Adaptable. The Lynx KF41 is a complete family of vehicles that utilises a common drive module and a flexible mission kit arrangement to allow any base vehicle to be configured as an IFV, an armoured personnel carrier, a command vehicle, a recovery vehicle or an ambulance. Changing from one configuration to another can occur within eight hours. This system provides significant total lifecycle cost savings due to base vehicle commonality, allowing customers to adjust force structures or develop new capabilities in an affordable and timely manner.

Enhancing the vehicle’s flexibility, the sub-systems of the Lynx KF41 are highly modular and adaptable. The Lynx KF41 features a digital backbone with a generic open architecture that allows easy integration of new mission systems, while the entire survivability system is modular and upgradable to allow the vehicle to cope with the highly adaptive threats faced on the battlefield. Different survivability kits are available for peacekeeping situations, counter-insurgency operations in urban terrain, and mounted combat against a peer. No other vehicle can adapt to diverse environments across the full spectrum of operational challenges like the Lynx KF41 can.

Highly Mobile. The Lynx KF41 features the latest generation of propulsion technology with an 850 kW (1,140 hp) Liebherr engine and a proven Renk transmission. A flexible suspension system has been developed by Supashock, an Australian company, meaning the Lynx can be configured to carry various mission kits and survivability packages without compromising mobility. When configured for mounted combat operations with the Lance 2.0 turret and a survivability package suitable for peer-on-peer combat, the Lynx KF41 weighs approximately 44 tonnes/97,003 lbs. In this configuration it provides class leading mobility due the high power-to-weight ratio of 26 hp/t, while still leaving up to six tonnes of reserve payload for future growth.

Survivable. The modular survivability systems of the Lynx provide unprecedented flexibility for customers to cope with the wide variety of threats faced across the spectrum of conflict. The ballistic and mine protection packages can be easily exchanged, even in the field if needed, while the full spectrum of threats have been taken into account, including roof protection against cluster munitions. The Lynx KF41 with Lance 2.0 has been designed not only for passive and reactive systems, but also for an active protection system to defeat rocket-propelled grenades and antitank guided missiles.

Hard hitting. The Lance 2.0 turret is the next generation of the in-service Lance family and has been developed to improve its suitability for an IFV. Lance 2.0 has various enhancements that provide a troop of Lynx KF41 vehicles with a very high level of organic capability, thus allowing the troop to have a disproportionate effect on the battlefield. The Lance 2.0 features enhanced protection for critical subsystems against kinetic and fragmentation threats, improving system survivability during close combat. The next enhancement is the integration of the new Wotan 35 electrically driven cannon that fires Rheinmetall’s proven and in-service 35×228 mm ammunition family. Lastly, the Lance 2.0 has two flexible mission pods fitted to the left and right of the turret that allow installation of a variety of sub-systems to give the turret a specialist capability. Examples of customer-selectable mission pods include dual Rafael Spike LR2 ATGMs, non-line of sight strike loitering munitions, UAVs or an electronic warfare package.

The Lynx KF41 and Lance 2.0 once again show Rheinmetall’s capabilities as a world-leading company in the fields of security and mobility.

Patria at Eurosatory

Patria launched at Eurosatory a new vehicle – Patria 6×6, which brings the basic principles behind its predecessor into the present day, with its multifunctional transport capacity and modularity that adapts easily to the customer’s needs.

Patria 6×6 is a successor to the Pasi Armoured Personnel Carrier and to complement the vehicle fleets of customers of the legendary Patria AMV 8×8
Patria 6×6 is a successor to the Pasi Armoured Personnel Carrier and to complement the vehicle fleets of customers of the legendary Patria AMV 8×8

Patria 6×6 is a successor to the Pasi Armoured Personnel Carrier and to complement the vehicle fleets of customers of the legendary Patria AMV 8×8. Patria 6×6 is a multipurpose transport vehicle. The chassis structure is based on the same components as the AMV, but with one less axle. The vehicle is driven by all three axles and steered from the front two, or all three, depending on its equipage. Optional equipage can be added to bring the 6×6 closer to the AMV. For example, various ballistic and mine protection levels, weapon systems, self-protection systems and other interior equipment are available.

Patria 6×6 can be equipped with a variety of weapon systems and, if required, the Patria Nemo 120-mm mortar system. The 6×6 has a maximum load-bearing capacity of 8.5 tonnes/18,739 lbs. The protection of the armoured 6×6 reaches STANdardization AGreement (STANAG) level 4, which means protection against even heavy machine gun fire. Due to the 6×6’s good load carrying capacity, it has better protection than previous Pasi APCs. Its mine protection is top-notch, even at the basic level, but up to 10 kilos of mine protection can be achieved.

Boarding and leaving the 6×6 is easy. In addition to the crew of 2-3 persons, the vehicle has seats for ten combat troops, depending on its purpose and layout. The driver can easily adapt to the controls in the 6×6’s truck-like cab. The vehicle is designed as a simple and cost-effective truck-like solution. In terms of durability, it will continue along the trail pioneered by its predecessor, the Pasi. The 6×6 is also a clearly unified concept in terms of its manufacturing technology. If necessary, the final assembly and equipage can easily be completed by a partner in the destination country. The 6×6 meets NATO standards and is ideally suited to e.g. peacekeeping missions anywhere in the world. The vehicle’s life cycle support is an integral part of the Patria 6×6.

«There has long been demand on the market for a successor to the Pasi Armoured Personnel Carrier, which has been in production since the 80s. The new 6×6 brings the basic principles behind its predecessor into the present day, with its multifunctional transport capacity and modularity that adapts easily to the customer’s needs», says Janne Räkköläinen, Vice President, Vehicle Systems, Patria’s Land business unit.

Patria 6×6 is a multipurpose transport vehicle
Patria 6×6 is a multipurpose transport vehicle

Specifications

DIMENSIONS
Length 7.5 m/24.6 feet
Height 2.5 m/8.2 feet
Width 2.9 m/9.5 feet
Maximum Total Weight (MTW) 24,000 kg/52,911 lbs.
PERFORMANCE
Top speed ˃100 km/h/62 mph
Swimming capability optional
Fording depth 1.5 m/4.9 feet
Range ˃700 km/435 miles
ENGINE
5-cylinder, turbocharged diesel engine
Power 294 kW/394 hp
Torque 1,870 Nm
TRANSMISSION
Automatic transmission 7 forward gears, 2 reverse
POWER LINE
Drive configuration Continuous all-wheel drive
Brakes Compressed-air, hydraulic disc brakes with Anti-lock Braking System (ABS)
Steering Power-assisted mechanical steering on 1 and 2 axles, optional rear wheel steering
MACHINING SUPPORT BLOCK
Suspension Independent suspension, double wishbone on each axle
Spring suspension Coil springs, optional hydropneumatics hydrostrut

The chassis structure is based on the same components as the AMV, but with one less axle

Anti-drone

MBDA’s Licorne pocket air defence Command and Control (C2) system has become the first fielded C2 to integrate anti-drone and traditional air defence capabilities.

MBDA Sidonie DESCHAMPS 2018
MBDA Sidonie DESCHAMPS 2018

Licorne is a very lightweight C2 solution with the ability to co-ordinate Very SHOrt-Range Air Defence (VSHORAD) systems, such as those of the Mistral family. A highly mobile C2, it is derived from the Improved Missile Control Post (I-MCP) and Platoon Command Post (PCP) systems family currently in use with armed forces in export markets, using the same software components, architecture and Human Machine Interfaces (HMI).

In order to deliver an effective response to the emergence of asymmetric threats, and particularly mini-drone attacks on deployed ground-to-air assets or other military assets inside the protected zone, Licorne can now also deploy anti-drone measures, and co-ordinate them with the traditional air defence assets.

To achieve this, MBDA has supplemented its C2 with a set of data link detectors and jammers originally developed to provide security for events or prisons, which have been adapted to military needs. For detection, Licorne uses a mobile radio frequency detection unit produced by Cerbair to intercept mini-drone data link transmissions. Once the threat has been detected and located, Licorne allows operators to activate countermeasures using a network of field-deployed jammers developed by KEAS.

Licorne’s scalable architecture is designed to enable the system to provide a first level of co-ordination for the VSHORAD systems used by rapid reaction forces, airborne units and amphibious units. Licorne provides surveillance, detection and identification functions with a high level of connectivity. It can be used in association with passive infrared 360° surveillance sensors, lightweight radars or Electronic Support Measurements (ESM) and acoustic sensors. Pocket C2 Licorne provides all the functions expected of a C2, including multisensor data fusion; real-time ranging; shared tactical position calculation; and even uploading battery sensor images to upper command levels using standard NATO military data link protocols such as the Joint Range Extension Applications Protocol C (JREAP-C).