The ability to task unmanned systems from a manned aircraft is an important force multiplier in Airbus’ vision for future air power, with a wide range of applications extending to combat scenarios and beyond.
As a pioneer in the realm of Manned-Unmanned Teaming (MUM-T), Airbus has developed an ambitious technological roadmap to make this innovative concept – which boosts the effectiveness of piloted and pilotless aircraft alike – a reality. The company demonstrated leading technological and industrial capabilities in 2021 and 2022, including key flight tests.
Fully implementing Manned-Unmanned Teaming – which will play an instrumental role in such initiatives as the Future Combat Air System (FCAS) and Multi-Domain Combat Cloud – requires a high level of automation. However, the involvement of human operators will ensure that meaningful control always will be retained.
Leveraging Airbus’ expertise
The involvement of Airbus with Manned-Unmanned Teaming began in 2018, when the first flight test campaign took place to validate initial capabilities. Since then, the development has seen increasing levels of maturity – with Airbus and its partner teams focusing on several key areas.
Synchronized and efficient use of manned and unmanned vehicles necessitates coordination and optimisation, with requirements that may vary from one mission to the next. To address this, Airbus is developing artificial intelligence-based teaming concepts and algorithms, including swarming behaviours and distributed teaming intelligence shared among the platforms.
This novel approach is reflected in the payloads, which can be integrated on the unmanned aircraft, as well as in the way they are used. For example, a distributed electronic warfare sensor was shown to be capable of precisely and quickly locating a threat and sharing its location across the network.
To achieve such capabilities, the unmanned assets must be able to communicate with the manned resources – and among each other in an agile and robust way, which is why an advanced data link is one pillar of the development.
Additionally, Airbus is preparing airframe solutions for future unmanned systems, building on experience in both unmanned aerial vehicles and combat aircraft. As the development progresses, these solutions will materialise as the FCAS Remote Carriers – unmanned aircraft designed to cooperate with fighters. To achieve the full potential, MUM-T technologies will also need to be relevant for already-existing unmanned aerial systems and for those developed in the future.
Building upon lessons learned from the previous MUM-T-related milestones, Airbus marked a major achievement with a live demonstration that linked company-built Do-DT25 target drones acting as surrogate Remote Carriers with an in-flight German Air Force Eurofighter aircraft. This occurred during the Timber Express 2021 multinational exercise organised by the German Armed Forces.
During the trial, the Eurofighter was able to assign tasks to two Airbus Do-DT25 Remote Carriers in real time. These unmanned platforms demonstrated the ability to perform several tasks, including aerial reconnaissance and electronic warfare. Upon receiving the tasks, the Remote Carriers autonomously planned their flight routes, adhering to prescribed airspace restrictions and circumnavigating known threats.
In 2022, MUM-T-related flight tests were performed outside of Germany for the first time. A test campaign organized in the Finnish areas of Rovaniemi and Kemijärvi – and directed by the Finnish Defence Forces (FDF) – marked the official start of cooperation with the German Armed Forces on this key capability.
As stated by the FDF in a press release: «The research cooperation strengthens the Defence Forces’ understanding of the development of unmanned aviation, which enables experimenting and evaluating the teaming of unmanned and manned aerial vehicles in the local operational environment».
In parallel, the capabilities of manned platforms are increasing to accommodate the future potential of Manned-Unmanned Teaming. Airbus’ multi-role A400M Atlas airlifter is envisioned as a launcher of FCAS Remote Carriers, with the first flight test already performed to confirm this capability.
The capstone flight test used real mission sensors on multiple unmanned military platforms and a manned military fighter aircraft, to execute a combat mission.
BAE Systems and the Office of the Deputy Secretary of Defense’s Strategic Capabilities Office (SCO) have completed a successful flight test of advanced Manned Unmanned Teaming (MUM-T) technology at a Department of Defense flight test range. The technology enables the rapid infusion of new payloads and platforms into the fleet to quickly enhance mission effectiveness and counter adversary technology.
The capstone flight test used real mission sensors on multiple unmanned military platforms and a manned military fighter aircraft, to execute a combat mission. The team of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) worked together to develop and execute autonomously the necessary tactics to complete the mission. The aviator used the Human Machine Interface (HMI) to monitor the mission’s progress and interact with the UAVs as desired.
«The development of autonomous technology is crucial to protect our warfighters against emerging threats», said Ehtisham Siddiqui, vice president and general manager of Controls and Avionics Solutions at BAE Systems. «This flight test demonstrates our team’s commitment to accelerate the deployment of reliable and innovative manned-unmanned teaming solutions for mission success».
During this most recent flight test, the team achieved its primary goal of demonstrating collaborative mission execution in an operationally representative environment. BAE Systems’ HMI was developed through extensive virtual and constructive simulation testing with assistance from pilots and electronic warfare officers. Test feedback from the manned aircraft operator also underscored the maturity of the MUM-T technology offering, highlighting its user-friendly interface, which increases mission safety and lethality.
«Our deep expertise in developing and fielding safety-critical flight control systems means that safety and assurance are integrated into our MUM-T architecture and software from the ground up», said Matthew Trouve, director of Development Programs for Military Aircraft Systems at BAE Systems. «This provides the warfighter with the necessary trust and confidence in our solution to operate in the same environment as autonomous unmanned teammates».
BAE Systems has developed its purpose-built architecture to be open, flexible, and assured. The company’s underlying MUM-T algorithms enable decentralized autonomous decision-making at the tactical edge, allowing the architecture to be easily adapted for new missions and incorporate future technology. A software development kit also allows third parties to introduce new algorithms and technologies to support future missions.
Over the next year, BAE Systems will continue development efforts with the DOD and invest in additional capabilities to further mature its MUM-T suite for operational readiness. The next phase of flight tests will enhance the mission suite’s capabilities and technology, showcasing flexibility and openness for integration on an additional manned aircraft type and another unmanned platform to execute a different mission.
BAE Systems’ MUM-T program leverages its more than 40 years of experience in flight control systems and 20 years of autonomous systems development expertise. Work for the MUM-T program is based at the company’s state-of-the-art facility in Endicott, N.Y.
In the presence of the French Minister of the Armed Forces, Florence Parly, and the Indonesian Minister of Defence, Prabowo Subianto, the Chairman and CEO of Dassault Aviation, Eric Trappier, and the Air Vice Marshal Yusuf Jauhari, Head of Defence Facilities Agency of the Indonesian Ministry of Defence, signed the contract for the acquisition by Indonesia of 42 latest-generation Rafale aircraft, at a ceremony held on February 10, 2022 in Jakarta.
The Rafale acquisition for the Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Udara (Indonesian National Army Air Force) includes a complete turnkey solution, with a comprehensive package that covers aircrew training, logistical support for several Indonesian air bases, and a training center with two full-mission simulators.
The Rafale’s unique «omnirole» capability will provide Indonesia with a tool for sovereignty and operational independence, reinforcing its role as a major regional power.
Indonesian industry will benefit from a substantial industrial return, not only in the aeronautical sector, but also in all the other major areas of cooperation relating to the broad portfolio of dual technologies mastered by Dassault Aviation and its industrial partners, Safran Aircraft Engines and Thales.
«It is a great honor for Dassault Aviation to see the Rafale join the highly prestigious Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Udara air force, and I would like to thank the Indonesian authorities for the trust they have placed in us. This contract marks the start of a long-term partnership that will see Dassault Aviation rapidly step up its presence in the country. It also demonstrates the strong bond between Indonesia and France and reinforces the position of the world’s largest archipelago as a key power on the international stage. I am confident that the Rafale will meet the operational needs of the Indonesian Air Force, actively contributing to the defence and sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia», said Eric Trappier on this occasion.
On January 19, 2022 six Rafale of the Hellenic Air Force (HAF), operated by its pilots, took off from the Dassault Aviation site in Istres to the Tanagra Air Base, where they were welcomed in a ceremony by the Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis, accompanied by the Minister of National Defense Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos and Senior Greek authorities. Éric Trappier, Chairman and CEO of Dassault Aviation, was also present to welcome their arrival.
The entry into operational service in the Hellenic Air Force’s 332 Squadron of these first six Rafale aircraft comes as a proof of the quality of the partnership between France and Greece, and occurs only one year after the signature of the contract for 18 aircraft. It is a testimony to the excellent relation between French and Greek authorities as well as between the Hellenic Air Force and Dassault Aviation teams.
The expertise of the training provided, in particular by Dassault Aviation, at the Mérignac Conversion Training Center (CTC), to Greek pilots, mechanics and HAF technicians, undeniably contributes to the success of this first ferry. The training of personnel will continue in the coming months in France and Greece.
The delivery of the next HAF Rafale will start at the end of 2022 with the objective to have all the fleet deployed at Tanagra Air Base by the summer of 2023.
«The mastery with which the Hellenic Air Force carried out this first ferry flight is a testimony to the excellence of our cooperation and the strength of our historical relationship with Greece for more than 45 years. Thanks to our mobilization, we were able to meet the expectations of the Greek authorities in record time, who now have the Rafale on national territory to reinforce the protection and sovereignty of the country. It also attests to the outstanding quality of our aircraft, confirmed by its export success. Lastly, it reflects our total commitment to meeting the needs of the HAF and to participating in Greece’s strategic ambitions», declared Éric Trappier at the end of the ceremony.
The Netherlands Ministry of Defence and Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) have officially declared Initial Operational Capability (IOC) for their F-35A Lightning II fleet. With this announcement the Netherlands becomes the eighth country and 12th military service to declare IOC for its F-35A Lightning II fleet.
«The declaration of IOC ushers in a new era of air power that gives the RNLAF transformational capabilities», F-35 Program Vice President and General Manager Bridget Lauderdale said. «I am proud of the Lockheed Martin team’s commitment to delivering the most effective, survivable and connected fighter to our partners in the Netherlands».
The most advanced fighter jet ever built, the F-35A Lightning II offers the RNLAF unmatched air superiority. Using its sensors and low observable technology, the F-35A Lightning II can operate with impunity in contested airspace and fuse a picture of the battlespace for other air, land and sea assets. Along with its advanced weapons capacity and superior range, the F-35A Lightning II offers unparalleled combat capabilities. The F-35A Lightning II will ensure the RNLAF can protect the national interest of the Netherlands and contribute to critical regional allied deterrence missions for decades to come.
The F-35A Lightning II program is leveraging the Netherlands’ industrial experience and expertise gained on the F-16 Fighting Falcon program to contribute to the technology development and production of the F-35 Lightning II. Every F-35A Lightning II contains components manufactured by Dutch companies, with more than 25 suppliers from across Dutch industry contributing to the program. With the introduction of advanced technologies, Dutch industry is strategically positioned to participate in the production of more than 3,000 F-35 Lightning II aircraft over the life of the program.
A total of 24 F-35As have been delivered to the RNLAF, and RNLAF crews have surpassed more than 9,085 flight hours to date, with 55 pilots and 262 maintainers supporting the fleet.
With more than 730 aircraft operating from 29 bases and ships across the globe, the F-35 Lightning II plays a critical role in today’s global security environment. More than 1,535 pilots and 11,500 maintainers have been trained on the aircraft. Nine nations have F-35s operating from their home soil.
51.4 feet/15.7 m
14.4 feet/4.38 m
35 feet/10.7 m
460 feet2/42.7 m2
Horizontal tail span
22.5 feet/6.86 m
29,300 lbs./13,290 kg
Internal fuel capacity
18,250 lbs./8,278 kg
18,000 lbs./8,160 kg
70,000 lbs. class/31,751 kg
Standard internal weapons load
two AIM-120C air-to-air missiles;
two 2,000-pound/907 kg GBU-31 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) guided bombs
Fleet Readiness Center East (FRCE) marked a milestone in its support of the F-35B Lightning II aircraft when it successfully completed verification of the laser shock peening process and returned the first aircraft to undergo the procedure to the fleet.
Laser shock peening strengthens the aircraft’s frame without adding any additional material or weight, which would reduce its capability by limiting its fuel or weapons carrying capacity. The procedure helps extend the life expectancy of the fifth-generation F-35B Lightning II fighter, which is the Short TakeOff-Vertical Landing (STOVL) variant flown by the U.S. Marine Corps. Verification of the process provides quality control by confirming it meets system-level requirements through a combination of inspection, analysis, demonstration and testing.
«The laser shock peening modification is essential to extending the life of the F-35B STOVL variant, and the ability to complete this procedure successfully allows FRC East to support this critical workload», said FRCE Commanding Officer Colonel Thomas A. Atkinson. «Standing up this strategic capability positions FRC East as a readiness multiplier for the future of Marine Corps aviation, and I’m proud of the hard work and dedication shown by the team in achieving verification of the process and returning the first laser shock peened F-35 aircraft to the fleet».
FRCE completed construction on a $6 million, purpose-built laser shock peening facility in August 2019, and inducted the first F-35 to undergo the procedure in June 2020. Achieving the verification milestone required a cooperative effort by a multidisciplinary team that spans FRCE, the F-35 Joint Program Office, the aircraft manufacturer and the contractors that developed and conduct the laser peening procedure.
«The big picture here is that we set up a capability that has never been stood up before. We made STOVL history by completing verification of the laser shock peening procedure on the first Marine Corps aircraft inducted for the modification and returned to the fleet», said Jeanie Holder, the F-35 Joint Program Office induction manager at FRCE. «As our local enterprise, we accomplished a lot to get the building stood up, get the equipment set up, and then roll the first aircraft into something that has never been done before».
Ike Rettenmair, the interim Fixed Wing Division director at FRCE, said he agreed the teamwork between the venture’s stakeholders – FRC East, the F-35 Joint Program Office, Lockheed Martin, Curtiss-Wright Surface Technologies and Northrup Grumman Corporation – helped make the effort successful.
«We have a great partnership between the working entities, and that makes all the difference», he added.
Brent Dane, director of laser technology at Curtiss-Wright, said the company is proud to be part of this milestone.
«Curtiss-Wright Surface Technology takes great pride in our contributions to returning the first laser peened F-35B to active service and we look forward to continued support of the F-35 fleet with this unique laser strengthening process», he said. «With the ever-growing applications of this technology to critical military assets, we are honored to contribute to our nation’s defense and to help guard the safety of the warfighter».
Having the laser shock peening process verified means FRCE and its partners conducted the modification for the first time and was then troubleshot, streamlined and improved, said Wes Klor, overhaul and repair supervisor on the F-35 modification line at FRCE.
«Our team got in there and completed the modification according to the engineering instruction, found any issues or trouble spots and documented these areas», Klor explained.
«The artisans will take the instructions and work them, step by step, until they get to a point where they see an area for correction or improvement», he continued. «Then they work with engineering to make changes to the engineering instruction on the spot and test out these solutions. Finally, they repeat the entire process successfully».
Verification validates the engineering instruction, the tooling, the supply system and other factors associated with the process, noted Scott Nelson, F-35 Joint Program Office induction manager at FRCE.
«Verification makes the process repeatable», he said. «You could take that instruction now and go complete this modification anywhere in the world if you had an LSP facility because all the steps are correct and in the right order. You have everything you need to do it».
The verification marks FRCE as the first and only facility in the world to capable of conducting the laser shock peening modification on an F-35 aircraft; a second facility, Ogden Air Logistics Complex at Hill Air Force Base, Utah, is scheduled to come online in the near future, and FRCE has served as a model for successful standup, Holder said.
«We found all the potholes. We have broken ground for them to be able to fall in behind us and not have to do it the hard way», she said. «It was always intended for FRC East to lead the way».
The Air Force facility has even sent members of its workforce to observe and learn from the work done at FRCE, Rettenmair added.
«They’ve sent artisans here to see what we do», he said. «They’ve sent planners and business office staff just to learn from this laser shock peening verification effort, and we’re willing to reach out to them and help them be successful».
The skill and enthusiasm of the artisans on FRCE’s F-35 modification line make this type of success possible at the depot and beyond, Rettenmair added.
«The commitment of the team is unmatched», he said. «The F-35 team as a whole is just hard to touch, with their loyalty and dedication to the success of the program. It’s great to see».
All told, almost 15,000 labor hours went into verifying the process, Holder said, which sets FRCE up for success when it comes to working laser shock peening modifications for select F-35B aircraft in the future.
«This is going to be a major part of the FRC East F-35 workload for the next five to seven years», she explained. «FRC East is the only facility that can do it besides the complex at Ogden, which will be providing the service on a limited, overflow basis because of their work on the F-35A, which is the conventional takeoff and landing variant flown by the Air Force. So, it’s huge. Truly, in my opinion, it is a big deal».
FRCE is the lead site for depot-level maintenance on the F-35B Lightning II and has conducted modifications and repair on the Marine Corps’ short takeoff-vertical landing variant of the aircraft since 2013. The facility has also worked with the F-35A (conventional takeoff and landing) and F-35C (carrier) variants.
FRCE is North Carolina’s largest maintenance, repair, overhaul and technical services provider, with more than 4,000 civilian, military and contract workers. Its annual revenue exceeds $1 billion. The depot provides service to the fleet while functioning as an integral part of the greater U.S. Navy; Naval Air Systems Command; and Commander, Fleet Readiness Centers.
51.2 feet/15.6 m
14.3 feet/4.36 m
35 feet/10.7 m
460 feet2/42.7 m2
Horizontal tail span
21.8 feet/6.65 m
32,300 lbs./14,651 kg
Internal fuel capacity
13,500 lbs./6,125 kg
15,000 lbs./6,800 kg
60,000 lbs. class/27,215 kg
Standard internal weapons load
two AIM-120C Air-to-Air Missiles;
two 2,000-pound/907-kg GBU-31 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) guided bombs
In the presence of the President of the French Republic, Emmanuel Macron, and Sheikh Mohammed ben Zayed Al Nahyane, Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi and Vice-Commander of the Armed Forces of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Eric Trappier, Chairman and CEO of Dassault Aviation, signed a historical contract with Tareq Abdul Raheem Al Hosani, CEO of Tawazun Economic Council, in charge of security and defense acquisitions, for the acquisition of 80 Rafale F4 for the United Arab Emirates Air Force & Air Defence (UAE AF & AD).
The Rafale F4, for which the Emirates Air Force will be the first user outside France, will provide the Emirates armed forces with a tool capable of guaranteeing sovereignty and operational independence. This contract is the result of total mobilization by Dassault Aviation alongside the Emirates Air Force and comes on the back of a more than 45-year long relationship of trust between the United Arab Emirates and our company, built on the Mirage family of fighter aircraft, notably the Mirage 2000-9, the modernization of which began two years ago.
Eric Trappier, Chairman and CEO of Dassault Aviation, said: «The sale of 80 Rafale to the UAE Federation is a French success story: I am very proud and very happy as a result. I wish to thank the authorities of the Emirates for their renewed confidence in our aircraft. After the Mirage 5 and Mirage 2000, this Rafale contract consolidates the strategic relationship that binds our two countries and the satisfaction of the Emirates Air Force, a long-standing and demanding partner of our company. I wish to underline the quality and effectiveness of the relationship between the French authorities and industry, which contributed to this success by team France.
This contract is excellent news for France and for its aeronautical industry, for the entire ecosystem of 400 companies, both large and small, which contribute to the Rafale: this represents thousands of guaranteed jobs in our sector for the coming decade. This contract, which is the largest ever obtained by the French combat aeronautics industry, consolidates a national industrial base, which is without doubt unique in Europe, comprising as it does major groups and SME/SMIs, around a company which has been the prime contractor for all the generations of military and civil aircraft for the past 70 years. The success of the Rafale with our armed forces and its sale to the UAE Federation, as well as its export to five other countries who are already customers, clearly shows that French combat aviation is an internationally recognized center of excellence on the national industrial landscape».
At a ceremony attended by the President of the French Republic Emmanuel Macron and the Prime Minister of the Croatian Republic Andrej Plenković, the French Minister of the Armed Forces Florence Parly and the Chairman and CEO of Dassault Aviation Eric Trappier signed today in Zagreb, with the Croatian Minister of Defense Mario Banozic, two contracts for the acquisition of 12 Rafale fighters and associated logistics support.
The state-to-state contract mainly covers the transfer of 12 Rafale fighters from the French Air Force along with their equipment, as well as a training service for the Croatian Air Force.
The logistics support contract covers all support resources, including additional spare parts for these aircraft, over a three-year period.
The selection of the Rafale, announced on May 28, after an international tender involving European and American aircraft, reflects its technological and operational superiority, as well as the excellent work done by the team «France» to consolidate its position in the European air forces.
«I am delighted, on behalf of Dassault Aviation and its partners, to be entering into a relationship of trust with Croatia, a European country, and to be writing a new page for the Rafale, which I am certain will give the Croatian Air Force complete satisfaction, while actively contributing to the exercise of Croatia’s national sovereignty», said Eric Trappier after the signing ceremony.
PZL Mielec, a Lockheed Martin company and one of Poland’s longest established aircraft manufacturers, is to be a manufacturing partner for one of the world’s most successful fighter aircraft programs. Beginning next year, PZL Mielec will build components and assemblies for the latest generation F-16 Fighting Falcon Block 70/72, sustaining around 200 jobs, with approximately 60 new jobs being created.
This development marks a significant new milestone for PZL Mielec, which was last involved in the production of fighter aircraft in the 1960s.
Beginning next year, PZL Mielec will manufacture the rear fuselage, center fuselage, cockpit structure, cockpit side panel and forward equipment bay for new production F-16s, exporting the aerostructures to Lockheed Martin’s final assembly line in Greenville, South Carolina.
«Today’s announcement underlines our commitment to PZL Mielec and to growing Lockheed Martin’s industrial footprint in Poland, where we currently employ around 1,600 people directly and sustain work for more than 5,000 others in the Polish supply chain», says Robert Orzylowski, Lockheed Martin director for Poland, Central and East Europe.
«During our 20+ year strategic partnership with Poland, we’ve delivered technology transfer, research and development opportunities, long-term sustainable high technology jobs, growth and exports», Orzylowski adds. «Poland’s acquisition of the F-35 opened the door for a further expansion of this relationship and helped enable today’s exciting announcement».
With orders already secured for the F-16 Fighting Falcon Block 70/72 from five customers, global interest remains high for new-build production aircraft and for F-16V Fighting Falcon upgrades.
Poland has operated F-16s in its own fleet for the past 15 years, and this summer marked a 100,000 flight-hour milestone.
«The F-16 Fighting Falcon remains a critical part of the Polish Air Force», says Danya Trent, Lockheed Martin vice president, F-16 Fighting Falcon program. «This new production work at PZL Mielec will further ensure Poland is part of the F-16 Fighting Falcon global enterprise for many years to come».
Beyond the F-16 Fighting Falcon, Poland is also procuring 32 F-35s, the first of which will be delivered in 2024. The complementary capabilities and interoperability between both fighter aircraft types serves to strengthen Poland’s airpower capabilities and enables partnerships across missions, training, equipment and tactics with other NATO members.
HMS Queen Elizabeth (R08) has welcomed fighter jets from a third allied nation on to her flight deck after working with the Italian Navy and Air Force.
Britain’s flagship is currently in the Mediterranean following months in the Indo-Pacific region as part of her global deployment.
As she heads west back to the UK, the ship has continued her busy programme of working with allied nations and partners.
The latest series of exercises saw HMS Queen Elizabeth (R08) work with Italian F-35B Lightning II stealth jets.
They are the same B variant as the joint Royal Air Force (RAF)/Royal Navy and U.S. Marine Corps stealth fighter currently embarked in the Portsmouth-based UK flagship. Italy is the only other NATO partner aside from the U.S. and UK to operate that variant.
The landings and takings off by the Italians means HMS Queen Elizabeth (R08) has now hosted jets from three different countries since leaving home in May, with the Italians the first European NATO partner to land on the UK flagship’s flight deck.
«The fact that U.S., Italian and UK F-35Bs Lightning II are able to fly to and from one another’s decks offers tactical agility and strategic advantage to NATO», said Royal Navy Commodore Steve Moorhouse, Commander of the UK Carrier Strike Group. «Today’s activity is a telling demonstration of the ability of the UK’s flagship to work seamlessly with other nations; Italy is the third nation to land an F-35B Lightning II on to the deck of HMS Queen Elizabeth (R08) and the seventh military operating F-35B Lightning II aircraft that the UK’s Carrier Strike Group has exercised with on CSG21!»
Earlier during their deployment, HMS Queen Elizabeth (R08) and her jets trained with the USS Carl Vinson (CVN-70) Carrier Strike Group and her impressive air wing in the Pacific Ocean, which includes the traditional carrier variant, F-35C Lightning II – launched by catapult.
The UK carrier also conducted multi-carrier exercises with the French Carrier FS Charles de Gaulle (R91), the USS Essex (LHD-2), USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76), the Japanese Carrier JS Ise (DDH-182) and the Japanese A variant of the F-35 Lightning II stealth fighter.
HMS Queen Elizabeth (R08) and her task group, including Type 45 destroyers HMS Defender and Diamond, Type 23 frigates HMS Kent (F78) and HMS Richmond (F239), Royal Fleet Auxiliary support ships RFA Fort Victoria (A387) and RFA Tidespring (A136).