Laser peening process

Fleet Readiness Center East (FRCE) marked a milestone in its support of the F-35B Lightning II aircraft when it successfully completed verification of the laser shock peening process and returned the first aircraft to undergo the procedure to the fleet.

F-35B Lightning II
Fleet Readiness Center East transportation specialists move the first F-35B Lightning II aircraft inducted to undergo laser peening modifications into the laser peening facility in early 2021. The laser peening procedure strengthens the aircraft’s frame without adding any additional material. FRCE recently completed verification of the modification procedure and returned this aircraft to the fleet for service

Laser shock peening strengthens the aircraft’s frame without adding any additional material or weight, which would reduce its capability by limiting its fuel or weapons carrying capacity. The procedure helps extend the life expectancy of the fifth-generation F-35B Lightning II fighter, which is the Short TakeOff-Vertical Landing (STOVL) variant flown by the U.S. Marine Corps. Verification of the process provides quality control by confirming it meets system-level requirements through a combination of inspection, analysis, demonstration and testing.

«The laser shock peening modification is essential to extending the life of the F-35B STOVL variant, and the ability to complete this procedure successfully allows FRC East to support this critical workload», said FRCE Commanding Officer Colonel Thomas A. Atkinson. «Standing up this strategic capability positions FRC East as a readiness multiplier for the future of Marine Corps aviation, and I’m proud of the hard work and dedication shown by the team in achieving verification of the process and returning the first laser shock peened F-35 aircraft to the fleet».

FRCE completed construction on a $6 million, purpose-built laser shock peening facility in August 2019, and inducted the first F-35 to undergo the procedure in June 2020. Achieving the verification milestone required a cooperative effort by a multidisciplinary team that spans FRCE, the F-35 Joint Program Office, the aircraft manufacturer and the contractors that developed and conduct the laser peening procedure.

«The big picture here is that we set up a capability that has never been stood up before. We made STOVL history by completing verification of the laser shock peening procedure on the first Marine Corps aircraft inducted for the modification and returned to the fleet», said Jeanie Holder, the F-35 Joint Program Office induction manager at FRCE. «As our local enterprise, we accomplished a lot to get the building stood up, get the equipment set up, and then roll the first aircraft into something that has never been done before».

Ike Rettenmair, the interim Fixed Wing Division director at FRCE, said he agreed the teamwork between the venture’s stakeholders – FRC East, the F-35 Joint Program Office, Lockheed Martin, Curtiss-Wright Surface Technologies and Northrup Grumman Corporation – helped make the effort successful.

«We have a great partnership between the working entities, and that makes all the difference», he added.

Brent Dane, director of laser technology at Curtiss-Wright, said the company is proud to be part of this milestone.

«Curtiss-Wright Surface Technology takes great pride in our contributions to returning the first laser peened F-35B to active service and we look forward to continued support of the F-35 fleet with this unique laser strengthening process», he said. «With the ever-growing applications of this technology to critical military assets, we are honored to contribute to our nation’s defense and to help guard the safety of the warfighter».

Having the laser shock peening process verified means FRCE and its partners conducted the modification for the first time and was then troubleshot, streamlined and improved, said Wes Klor, overhaul and repair supervisor on the F-35 modification line at FRCE.

«Our team got in there and completed the modification according to the engineering instruction, found any issues or trouble spots and documented these areas», Klor explained.

«The artisans will take the instructions and work them, step by step, until they get to a point where they see an area for correction or improvement», he continued. «Then they work with engineering to make changes to the engineering instruction on the spot and test out these solutions. Finally, they repeat the entire process successfully».

Verification validates the engineering instruction, the tooling, the supply system and other factors associated with the process, noted Scott Nelson, F-35 Joint Program Office induction manager at FRCE.

«Verification makes the process repeatable», he said. «You could take that instruction now and go complete this modification anywhere in the world if you had an LSP facility because all the steps are correct and in the right order. You have everything you need to do it».

The verification marks FRCE as the first and only facility in the world to capable of conducting the laser shock peening modification on an F-35 aircraft; a second facility, Ogden Air Logistics Complex at Hill Air Force Base, Utah, is scheduled to come online in the near future, and FRCE has served as a model for successful standup, Holder said.

«We found all the potholes. We have broken ground for them to be able to fall in behind us and not have to do it the hard way», she said. «It was always intended for FRC East to lead the way».

The Air Force facility has even sent members of its workforce to observe and learn from the work done at FRCE, Rettenmair added.

«They’ve sent artisans here to see what we do», he said. «They’ve sent planners and business office staff just to learn from this laser shock peening verification effort, and we’re willing to reach out to them and help them be successful».

The skill and enthusiasm of the artisans on FRCE’s F-35 modification line make this type of success possible at the depot and beyond, Rettenmair added.

«The commitment of the team is unmatched», he said. «The F-35 team as a whole is just hard to touch, with their loyalty and dedication to the success of the program. It’s great to see».

All told, almost 15,000 labor hours went into verifying the process, Holder said, which sets FRCE up for success when it comes to working laser shock peening modifications for select F-35B aircraft in the future.

«This is going to be a major part of the FRC East F-35 workload for the next five to seven years», she explained. «FRC East is the only facility that can do it besides the complex at Ogden, which will be providing the service on a limited, overflow basis because of their work on the F-35A, which is the conventional takeoff and landing variant flown by the Air Force. So, it’s huge. Truly, in my opinion, it is a big deal».

FRCE is the lead site for depot-level maintenance on the F-35B Lightning II and has conducted modifications and repair on the Marine Corps’ short takeoff-vertical landing variant of the aircraft since 2013. The facility has also worked with the F-35A (conventional takeoff and landing) and F-35C (carrier) variants.

FRCE is North Carolina’s largest maintenance, repair, overhaul and technical services provider, with more than 4,000 civilian, military and contract workers. Its annual revenue exceeds $1 billion. The depot provides service to the fleet while functioning as an integral part of the greater U.S. Navy; Naval Air Systems Command; and Commander, Fleet Readiness Centers.



Length 51.2 feet/15.6 m
Height 14.3 feet/4.36 m
Wingspan 35 feet/10.7 m
Wing area 460 feet2/42.7 m2
Horizontal tail span 21.8 feet/6.65 m
Weight empty 32,300 lbs./14,651 kg
Internal fuel capacity 13,500 lbs./6,125 kg
Weapons payload 15,000 lbs./6,800 kg
Maximum weight 60,000 lbs. class/27,215 kg
Standard internal weapons load two AIM-120C Air-to-Air Missiles;

two 2,000-pound/907-kg GBU-31 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) guided bombs

Propulsion (uninstalled thrust ratings) F135-PW-600
Maximum Power (with afterburner) 41,000 lbs./182,4 kN/18,597 kgf
Military Power (without afterburner) 27,000 lbs./120,1 kN/12,247 kgf
Short Take Off Thrust 40,740 lbs./181,2 kN/18,479 kgf
Hover Thrust 40,650 lbs./180,8 kN/18,438 kgf
Main Engine 18,680 lbs./83,1 kN/8,473 kgf
Lift Fan 18,680 lbs./83,1 kN/8,473 kgf
Roll Post 3,290 lbs./14,6 kN/1,492 kgf
Length 369 inch/9.37 m
Main Engine Inlet Diameter 43 inch/1.09 m
Main Engine Maximum Diameter 46 inch/1.17 m
Lift Fan Inlet Diameter 51 inch/1,30 m
Lift Fan Maximum Diameter 53 inch/1,34 m
Conventional Bypass Ratio 0.57
Powered Lift Bypass Ratio 0.51
Conventional Overall Pressure Ratio 28
Powered Lift Overall Pressure Ratio 29
Speed (full internal weapons load) Mach 1.6 (~1,043 knots/1,200 mph/1,931 km/h)
Combat radius (internal fuel) >450 NM/517.6 miles/833 km
Range (internal fuel) >900 NM/1,035.8 miles/1,667 km
Max g-rating 7.0


Planned Quantities

U.S. Marine Corps 353
U.K. Royal Air Force/Royal Navy 80
Italy 15
South Korea 20
Singapore 12
Japan 42
In total 522