Solid Fuel Ramjet

Northrop Grumman Corporation successfully completed multiple rounds of tests on its Solid Fuel Ramjet (SFRJ) tactical engine configuration – a technology to enable long range precision fires, one of the U.S. Army’s key priorities.

Solid Fuel Ramjet (SFRJ)
Projectile concept shows potential to extend munition range to more than 100 km/62 miles

Conducted as part of phase one of the U.S. Army’s XM1155 Extended-Range Artillery Projectile (ERAP) program, the SFRJ tests validated gun-launched survivability and performance predictions, and demonstrated the potential of extending projectile range to more than 100 kilometers/62 miles, which is a significant increase compared to current fielded artillery projectiles.

The XM1155 ERAP program will provide an extended range, guided 155-mm artillery round capable of defeating moving and stationary targets in all terrain and weather conditions. The munition system is being designed to provide multi-domain battlespace dominance against high level targets.

«Successful completion of the rigorous tests of the Solid Fuel Ramjet demonstrates maturation of the technology to survive the very challenging gun-launch environment and significantly extend the range of the U.S. military’s current field artillery with a high level of confidence», said Pat Nolan, vice president, missile products, Northrop Grumman.

Work under the contract will be completed at the Allegany Ballistics Laboratory in Rocket Center, West Virginia, Ronkonkoma, New York; Plymouth, Minnesota; and in partnership with SPARC Research based out of Warrenton, Virginia.

Northrop Grumman solves the toughest problems in space, aeronautics, defense and cyberspace to meet the ever evolving needs of our customers worldwide. Our 90,000 employees define possible every day using science, technology and engineering to create and deliver advanced systems, products and services.

AEW&C Jet

In a ceremony held on November 27, 2020 at the Embraer facility in Gavião Peixoto (São Paulo, Brazil), Embraer delivered the first modernized EMB 145 AEW&C (Airborne Early Warning and Control), designated E-99, to the Brazilian Air Force (FAB). Four additional E-99 aircraft will be modernized as part of the contract.

Embraer E-99M
Embraer delivers the first modernized E-99 jet to the Brazilian Air Force

«For Embraer, it is a privilege to continue meeting FAB’s needs to keep this robust and modern aircraft updated. It plays a strategic role in Brazil’s defense system and has already proven its operational effectiveness», said Jackson Schneider, President and CEO of Embraer Defense & Security. «As part of Embraer’s growth strategy for the coming years, we have invested in diversifying our business portfolio of defense and security with innovative solutions to better meet the defense global market needs, which goes far beyond our jets».

The mission systems and related subsystems, including electronic warfare, command and control, electronic countermeasures, and aerial surveillance radar were updated as part of the modernization process, expanding FAB’s capacity to carry out Flight Control and Alarm missions and Electronic Reconnaissance, among others.

The E-99M project is conducted by COPAC with support from Embraer and various international suppliers, such as SAAB, Aeroelectronica International (AELI), and Rohde & Schwarz. In addition to modernization, the project entails technology transfer agreements that will enable technological advancements for the Brazilian defense industry.

Atech, an Embraer Defense and Security company, participates in the development of the command and control system. Six mission planning and analysis stations were also acquired, which will be used for the training and improvement of crews.

Built on the successful ERJ 145 regional jet platform, with more than 1,200 units delivered and 30 million flight hours, the FAB E-99 aircraft can detect, track, and identify targets in their patrol area and transmit this information to allied forces. The aircraft can also perform airspace management, fighter positioning and interception control, signals intelligence, and surveillance missions.

Columbia-class

Huntington Ingalls Industries (HII) announced today that its Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS) division has been awarded a contract modification from General Dynamics Electric Boat in support of construction on the first two Columbia-class ballistic missile submarines.

Columbia-class
Huntington Ingalls Industries awarded contract for construction of first two Columbia-class submarine modules

The contract modification, valued at approximately $2.2 billion, provides continued design support efforts, as well as the construction and delivery of six module sections for each of the first two Columbia-class submarines.

As part of the contract, Newport News will deliver the completed modules to Electric Boat for final assembly. The contracted module delivery dates are scheduled to start in November 2022 with the last module delivery taking place by January 2028.

«We are pleased to be a crucial design and manufacturing contributor to the Columbia-class program», said Charles Southall, Newport News’ vice president of Columbia-class Submarine Construction. «This contract continues NNS’ longstanding and strong commitment to the Navy’s undersea enterprise through the design and construction of major modules and assemblies necessary to achieve program objectives».

Newport News is a major contractor and shipbuilding partner in the Columbia-class program, and in May 2019 began advance construction activities on the lead ballistic missile submarine under contract to Electric Boat.

The Columbia class will replace the fleet of Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines. The lead ship is scheduled to be delivered to the Navy in 2027.

Australian patrol boat

Austal Limited is pleased to announce that Austal Australia has ‘cut metal’ on the third of six new Cape-class patrol boats to be constructed for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN).

Cape-class
Austal Australia is constructing six new Cape-class Patrol Boats for the Royal Australian Navy (Image: Austal)

The plate-cutting marks the start of construction of Hull 813, part of a A$324 million, six vessel contract announced on 1 May 2020 by the Australian Minister for Defence, Senator the Hon Linda Reynolds CSC and Defence Industry Minister, The Honourable Melissa Price MP.

Austal Chief Executive Officer David Singleton said the Henderson, Western Australia shipyard now had five Cape-class Patrol Boats in various stages of production, for export and local customers.

«This third Cape for the Royal Australian Navy adds to the two already under construction by our experienced team of shipbuilders. Lined up prior to those, we have two more Capes for the Trinidad and Tobago Coast Guard, which are on track for delivery in the first half of 2021», Mr. Singleton said. «It’s great to see the shipyard bustling with work, on both local and export defence contracts that are helping to build Australia’s sovereign shipbuilding capability. We’re very proud of the demonstrated capability and productivity of our Australian operations to manage multiple projects – supported on every vessel by our proven Australian supply chain».

Based on Austal’s proven 58 metre/190 feet aluminium monohull patrol boat design, the new RAN Capes include a number of enhancements that further extend the capability of the vessel and the fleet. Crew accommodation has been increased by 10 people, to now total 32 and ‘quality-of-life’ provisions have been enhanced, ensuring those who operate the new Capes have WIFI connectivity to the outside world regardless of the operating environment.

Delivery of the first of six Capes, Hull 811, is scheduled in September 2021 with subsequent deliveries of remaining vessels through to mid-2023.

Austal is also delivering 21 Guardian-class Patrol Boats for 12 Pacific Island nations and Timor Leste under the SEA3036-1 Pacific Patrol Boat Replacement Project, with eight patrol boats delivered since 2018. Austal provides in-service support to both the Cape and Guardian-class Patrol Boat fleets through an expanding service centre network including Henderson, Western Australia, Cairns, Queensland and Darwin, Northern Territory.

Sea Venom

The Sea Venom/ANL anti-ship missile has completed its qualification firings trials, with a successful final firing at the French Armament General Directorate (DGA) test site at Ile du Levant on 17 November.

Sea Venom/ANL
MBDA completes qualification firing trials of the Sea Venom/ANL missile

Soon to start equipping the Royal Navy’s AW159 Wildcat and Marine nationale’s H160M Guépard shipborne helicopters, the Sea Venom/ANL anti-ship missile is a co-operation project developed under the Lancaster House treaty between France and the United Kingdom. The Sea Venom/ANL missile is the first programme to take full advantage of the cross-border centres of excellence on missile technologies launched by the Lancaster House treaty, which celebrated its 10-year anniversary this month.

The final qualification trial tested the missile’s advanced target discrimination within a complex and cluttered naval scenario.

Éric Béranger, MBDA CEO, said: «I want to congratulate the UK-French teams across both MBDA and our governments for the commitment they have shown in meeting this qualification milestone amid the disruption caused by Covid-19. Together they have proven that through co-operation we can jointly overcome adversity and deliver leading edge military capabilities».

Previous trials have tested the missiles launch envelope, release envelope and engagement modes, such as its low-altitude sea-skimming flight, Lock On After Launch (LOAL), Lock On Before Launch (LOBL), operator-in-the-loop, and aimpoint refinement.

Autonomous Transport

During Project Convergence 20, the Army Futures Command’s capstone exercise of an ambitious project of learning, multiple examples of the most cutting-edge military technology were put through their paces on Yuma Proving Ground’s (YPG) vast ranges.

MUTT
During Project Convergence 20, the US Army evaluated several advanced systems, including the Multi-Utility Tactical Transport (MUTT), an 8×8 unmanned all-terrain vehicle that will follow a dismounted infantry Soldier carrying a wireless tether (U.S. Army photo)

One of the most rugged was the Multi-Utility Tactical Transport (MUTT), an 8×8 unmanned all-terrain vehicle that will follow a dismounted infantry Soldier carrying a wireless tether.

In addition to its usefulness for lugging heavy gear, or even wounded Soldiers, an armed variant is outfitted with a Javelin anti-tank missile, a .50 caliber/12.7-mm machine gun, and a M4 rifle.

«We are testing integrating multiple payloads that will enable a Soldier to do their mission more effectively», said Gerald Jung, mechanical engineer. «Dismounted Soldiers can only carry what’s on their back – now they have a ‘mule’ that can carry much heavier equipment, but that’s still small enough to not restrict their mobility in tight areas».

Perhaps the most interesting payload being evaluated was a tethered unmanned aerial system that can ascend 200 feet above the MUTT and serve a variety of purposes, including use as an electronic signal repeater.

«It can be used for reconnaissance, surveillance, or assessments of battle damage», said Carlos Molina, test officer.

The MUTT can also be outfitted with other payloads: a screening obscuring module that delivers a smoke screen, chemical and biological agent detectors, and an ultra-low light night vision camera that produces full color images.

«You can see and make distinction of objects a lot easier when you have full color», said Jung.

The testing at YPG across six weeks of Project Convergence’s capstone exercise subjected all of the systems to the most intense weather and terrain conditions the Sonoran Desert had to offer, and then some: Yuma experienced nine days of record-breaking heat across the time the demonstration was in progress. The MUTT was put through its paces across rugged, steep, unimproved desert roads and trails fully exposed to the elements as evaluators collected performance data.

«We had several days that were in excess of 115 degrees», said Jung. «That’s without the solar loading – once you put the sun on it, the temperature of the vehicle can exceed 140 degrees. Some of our equipment reached 160 degrees».

«This is a testament to how important it is to test out here», said Molina. «A lot of these systems have never seen the temperatures we have here. When you add the temperature, the dust, the vibration, it is an extremely intense environment».

Each MUTT is expected to be able to carry 1,000 pounds/453.6 kg, operate for 60 miles/96.5 km in 72 hours, and run silently in the field to avoid detection by an adversary, all while being able to recharge Soldiers’ peripheral electronic gear like radios and night vision goggles with onboard power. YPG’s natural environment testing ensures this vital piece of equipment will work as expected wherever in the world it is called upon to serve.

«The YPG personnel have been phenomenal», said Jung. «Whatever we needed, they were able to surge and provide it».

Hypersonic weapons

The B-1B Lancer’s expanded carriage capabilities comes one step closer to fruition following an external captive carry flight over the skies of Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), California, November 20.

B-1B Lancer
A B-1B Lancer with a Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM) flies in the skies above Edwards Air Force Base, California, November 20. The flight was a demonstration of the B-1B’s external weapons carriage capabilities (Air Force photo by Ethan Wagner)

The flight featured a B-1B Lancer assigned to the 412th Test Wing’s 419th Flight Test Squadron, Global Power Combined Test Force, and carried an inert Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile under an external pylon for the first time.

This demonstration may pave the way possibly for the B-1B Lancer to carry hypersonic weapons externally.

«Adapting a small number of our healthiest B-1s to carry hypersonic weapons is vital to bridge between the bomber force we have today, to the force of tomorrow», said General Tim Ray, Air Force Global Strike Command commander. «This is a major step forward in our global precision fires capability and it is important we pursue these technologies to remain ahead of our competitors. My goal is to have a limited number of B-1s modified to become the roving linebacker of the western Pacific and the North Atlantic».

The captive carry flight was the culmination of the numerous ground tests that began with last year’s expanded carriage demonstration that included a modified internal bomb bay, which featured a moveable bulkhead. The demonstration showcased a configuration of the B-1B Lancer that would allow the aircraft to carry larger-sized weapons both internally and externally.

«We’re essentially displaying our external weapons carriage capability», said Major Bret Cunningham, a B-1B Lancer test pilot with the 419th FLTS. «We have a JASSM weapon on what is traditionally the targeting pod pylon on the forward right hard point, so we are demonstrating that the B-1B Lancer has the capability to carry weapons and employ them externally».

This extensive engineering review will help the Air Force understand areas where it needs to focus on to maintain the B-1B Lancer as a multi-mission weapon system, potentially laying the groundwork for integration of future weapons on the aircraft.

The B-1B Lancer was initially designed to incorporate a moveable bulkhead and usable external hard points for its original nuclear mission, however the U.S. shifted the Lancer’s mission to conventional weapons in 1994. The physical conversion to conventional-only armaments started in 2007 with the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), and was finished in 2011.

The current expanded carriage demonstrations will keep the aircraft compliant with the New START agreement, which means the Lancer can once again utilize those features while delivering conventional weapons.

«Since the long bay demo last year this has really been our key focus point in 2020; getting ready for this external weapons release demo as kind of the next step in that progression towards external weapons carriage and hypersonic capabilities for the B-1B Lancer», Cunningham said. «We’re pretty close to the culmination of this demo event and reaching that next milestone».

The demonstration could mean a potential boon for combatant commanders as the increase in weapons stores remedies an immediate shortfall due to the limited number of strategic bombers. The proposed increase in capacity means that two bombers would equal to three bombers’ worth of weapons.

Following the captive carry mission, engineers will then review the data gathered from the flight before moving on to the next of phase of the demonstration; an external weapons release.

«For us, we’re looking to do this safely, since this is the first time, we will release a weapon from the external hard point in over 30 years», said Agustin Martinez, project test lead. «So, we pretty much focused on doing a safe build up approach…to make sure the JASSM and the B-1B Lancer are communicating correctly; the JASSM has correct surface deployment timelines so once it does get released it will safely separate».

Engineers within the Air Force Test Center (AFTC) enterprise, B-1B Lancer system program office and Boeing will verify both the weapon’s and pylon’s integration with the B-1B Lancer. They are also interested in the physical effects, software, and flying qualities of the new shape on the outer mold line of the aircraft, Cunningham explained.

«The Air Force Test Center is enthusiastically teaming with Global Strike to enable greater flexibility in B-1B Lancer operational payloads», said Major General Christopher Azzano, AFTC commander. «The external carriage and long-bay mods reflect our ability to keep weapon systems relevant with mid-life upgrades».

AFTC has a long history of certifying external carriage weapons, Azzano added.

That history of test success and uniqueness of the mission is not lost on testers such as Cunningham and his B-1B Lancer flight crew.

«This is a great example of how we are accelerating change to meet our adversaries, and the engineers and operators should be commended for their work in getting this demonstration completed», Ray added. «We will continue to invest in and modernize the bomber fleet while increasing the lethality of our global precision fires to be anywhere and anytime».

This demonstration does not affect the Air Force’s request to retire 17 B-1B Lancer bombers in 2021.

Mission Master

Rheinmetall’s game-changing Mission Master Autonomous – Unmanned Ground Vehicle (A-UGV) family has just gained a new member: The Mission Master – Armed Reconnaissance. Equipped with intelligence-gathering technology and a Rheinmetall Fieldranger Remote-Controlled Weapon Station (RCWS), the new Armed Reconnaissance module is designed to collect tactical intelligence in the area of operations while providing frontline fire support whenever necessary.

A-UGV Mission Master
Rheinmetall unveils its new Mission Master – Armed Reconnaissance system

 

Crewless recon missions maximize troop security

Autonomous robotic vehicles offer countless advantages, including in a reconnaissance context. The Mission Master – Armed Reconnaissance is designed to execute high-risk scouting missions and deliver a real-time common operating picture without putting soldiers in danger. Since an enormous volume of data is gathered during missions of this type, Rheinmetall’s new A-UGV is equipped with resilient, highly reliable systems. Its payload consists of long-range Electro-Optical/Infra-Red (EO/IR) sensors, a surveillance radar, a 360° full ring camera, a laser rangefinder and a laser designator to identify potential threats. To further enhance the line of sight for the sensors while keeping a concealed posture, the reconnaissance payload is installed on a 3.5-metre/11.5-foot expandable mast with a tilting mechanism. This convenient feature allows for increased and safe transportability on any platform, even a CH-53 Sea Stallion or CH-47 Chinook.

The Armed Reconnaissance module also features radio-agnostic architecture, which means it can accommodate any type of radio that customers may need. The bidirectional communication system permits clear exchanges with HQ and other A-UGVs, giving commanders greater situational awareness. When engaging enemy forces, the Rheinmetall Fieldranger Light 7.62-mm RCWS will provide much more firepower than the usual man-carried section weapon. Engagement of targets is remote-controlled, never autonomous.

 

Safe operation at all times

As with the other modules of the Mission Master family, the Armed Reconnaissance owes its autonomous functions to the Rheinmetall PATH autonomous kit (A-kit). Proven, agnostic, trusted and highly autonomous, PATH is designed to enable military vehicles to operate in unmanned mode, freeing up soldiers for other duties and keeping them out of immediate danger. The A-kit provides a wide range of teleoperation options for the Mission Master, including a tablet, smartwatch, soldier system, and single-hand controller. These devices enable full access to advanced PATH features such as follow-me, convoy and autonomous navigation modes. Each control mode incorporates multiple layers of protection to ensure that the vehicle operates safely at all times. Moreover, Rheinmetall is committed to keeping a man in the loop in all kinetic operations, assuring that a human decides when to open fire, never a machine.

 

A comprehensive Mission Master family

The new Armed Reconnaissance module is the latest addition to the modular Mission Master family, widely acclaimed for its all-terrain manoeuvrability and ability to keep troops safe when deployed in harm’s way. The Cargo module can carry over half a ton of supplies, relieving the burden on troops keeping them fresh. The Fire Support modules boost the combat power of dismounted units, while the Rescue module autonomously evacuates casualties and carries specialized equipment for medical interventions in the field. In addition, every single module is equipped with a Blue Force tracking system that is fully compatible with NATO standards.

Like all members of the Mission Master family, the Armed Reconnaissance version is already networked to the Argus soldier system and Rheinmetall Command and Control Software, which can be installed in any user’s battle management system.

 

Power of the Wolf Pack

The addition of the Armed Reconnaissance to the Mission Master suite turns Rheinmetall’s groundbreaking Wolf Pack concept into a reality. The Wolf Pack consists of multiple Mission Master vehicles efficiently operating as a team in order to accomplish missions of all types, including zone surveillance, reconnaissance, target position transfer and slew-to-cue. All units communicate with each other and use artificial intelligence to maintain the total situational awareness necessary for carrying out their missions.

A genuine force multiplier, the entire Wolf Pack can be managed by a single operator from anywhere using the LTE network, SATCOM, or military cloud. It is an intuitive concept that enables one operator – rather than multiple uncoordinated operators – to focus on the overall mission rather than managing all the tasks of each A-UGV. As Rheinmetall continues to develop new modules for the Mission Master family, the Wolf Pack’s range of capabilities will only increase, significantly improving the military’s ability to achieve overmatch against increasingly capable enemies.

The Armed Reconnaissance module is the newest addition to Rheinmetall’s lineup of Mission Master Autonomous – Unmanned Ground Vehicles (A-UGVs)

Advanced Hawkeye

The State Department has made a determination approving a possible Foreign Military Sale to the Government of France of three (3) E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft and related equipment for an estimated cost of $2 billion. The Defense Security Cooperation Agency delivered the required certification notifying Congress of this possible sale today.

E-2D Advanced Hawkeye
France has awarded an order worth about $2 billion for three Northrop Grumman E-2D Advanced Hawkeye AEW aircraft, seen here during a test, to replace the earlier E-2Cs that operate from the French Navy carrier Charles de Gaulle (FR Navy photo)

The Government of France requests to buy three (3) E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft, ten (10) T-56-427A engines (6 installed and 4 spares), three (3) AN/APY-9 radar assemblies, four (4) AN/ALQ-217 electronic support measure systems (3 installed and 1 spare), three (3) AN/AYK-27 Integrated Navigation Channels and Display Systems, five (5) Link-16 (MIDS-JTRS) Communications Systems (3 installed and 2 spares), ten (10) Embedded GPS/INS (EGI) Devices (6 installed and 4 spares), four (4) AN/APX-122(A) and AN/APX-123(A) Identification, Friend or Foe systems (3 installed and 1 spare) and one (1) Joint Mission Planning System. Also included are Common Systems Integration Laboratories with/Test Equipment, one in Melbourne, FL, and the other in France; air and ground crew equipment; support equipment; spare and repair parts; publications and technical documentation; transportation; training and training equipment; U.S. Government and contractor logistics, engineering, and technical support services; and other related elements of logistics and program support. The total estimated program cost is $2 billion.

This proposed sale will support the foreign policy and national security of the United States by helping to improve security of a NATO ally which is an important force for political stability and economic progress in Europe.

The proposed sale will improve France’s capability to meet current and future threats by providing its Naval Air Forces with a sustainable follow on capability to their current, legacy E-2C Hawkeye aircraft. The E-2D Advanced Hawkeye aircraft will continue and expand French naval aviation capabilities and maintain interoperability with U.S. naval forces. As a current E-2C Hawkeye operator, France will have no difficulty absorbing this equipment and support into its armed forces.

The proposed sale of this equipment and support will not alter the basic military balance in the region.

The principal contractor will be Northrop Grumman Systems Corp, Aerospace Systems, Melbourne, Florida. There are no known offset agreements proposed in connection with this potential sale. Any offset agreement will be defined in negotiations between the Purchaser and the prime contractor.

Implementation of this proposed sale will not require the assignment of any additional U.S. Government or contractor representatives to France.

There will be no adverse impact on U.S. defense readiness resulting from this proposed sale.

French Albatros

During a visit to the Dassault Aviation plant in Seclin, in northern France, the French Minister of the Armed Forces, Florence Parly, today announced the upcoming notification of the contract for the «Albatros» Maritime Surveillance and Intervention Aircraft (AVSIMAR) program, which will be based on the Dassault Aviation Falcon 2000LXS. In accordance with the multiyear military spending bill (LPM), the initial order is for seven aircraft, to be delivered from 2025, out of the planned total of 12.

Falcon 2000 Albatros
Falcon 2000 Albatros for the French Navy

Dassault Aviation and the dozens of French companies associated with the Falcon programs would like to thank the French Ministry of the Armed Forces, the French Defense Procurement Agency (DGA) and the French Navy for their confidence.

The Falcon 2000 Albatros will feature a multifunction radar under the fuselage, a high-performance optronic turret, observation windows, a SAR (Search & Rescue) kit release system and dedicated communication systems.

In line with the aeronautical maintenance transformation policy initiated by the French Ministry of the Armed Forces, the Albatros contract commits Dassault Aviation to a guaranteed availability clause, favoring industrial support in close cooperation with Navy personnel for 10 years.

«The Falcon 2000 Albatros is a high-performance aircraft equipped with a mission system and sensors of the latest generation. From the Falcon 20 of the U.S. Coast Guard to the Falcon 2000MSA of the Japanese Coast Guard, as well as the Falcon 200 Gardian and 50M of the French Navy, we have extensive experience in maritime surveillance, in addition to our long experience in maritime patrol with the Atlantique», said Eric Trappier, Chairman and CEO of Dassault Aviation. «Several countries have shown interest in these aircraft, which provide an effective response to the considerable challenges of homeland protection and maritime security and government action at sea: fighting pollution and trafficking, surveillance of borders and exclusion zones, fisheries policing, search and rescue at sea, etc. It is only fitting that France, which has the world’s second largest exclusive economic zone, should be at the forefront in the use of this type of aircraft».

The first Falcon 2000LXS aircraft on which the program will be based will be manufactured in France. The remainder will be produced in India as part of the offset arrangements related to the 2016 Rafale contract. The conversion of the 12 Falcon 2000LXS aircraft into the Albatros configuration will all be carried out in France.

Over the past 50 years, Dassault Aviation has modified many Falcon aircraft to adapt them for maritime surveillance, medical evacuation, cargo transport, calibration, intelligence-gathering, training, etc. These multi-role aircraft represent approximately 10% of the Falcon fleet in service. French government services operate Falcon 10, 200, 50, 900, 2000, 7X and soon 8X aircraft in a strategic intelligence version under the Archange contract.

These multi-role Falcon aircraft are a perfect example of the dual civil/military know-how of Dassault Aviation: they benefit from the cutting-edge technologies developed for our fighter aircraft and, at the same time, they take advantage of the industrial processes used for the highly competitive production of our business jets.